Biota

cladus
(Redirectum de Vita Biota)

Biota[1] in scientificis classificationis rationibus sunt res quae ad caput totius taxinomiae viventium stant. Pan-Biota appellatur is cladus phylogeneticus qui vitam ab initio usque ad homines comprehendit. Sic definitur ab ipso Wagner: "Panbiota": the first ancestor of Homo sapiens and all of its descendants, i.e. "Hominis sapientis progenitor omnesque suae proles". Idem cladus secundum regulas phylogeneticas recentiores in "Pan-Biota (Wagner, 2004)" a Queiroz et al. (2020) rite rescripta est, definitione emendata.

De nomineRecensere

Biota est voocabulum originis recentis, in lingua Anglica a biot- (vita) et suffixo -a formatum, sed similis est voci Graeco βιοτή, synonymo βίος, "vita".[2]

Synonymum huius notionis est Bionta, nunc taxon defunctum habitum, creatum a Lee Barker Walton anno 1930, ad omnia viventia denominanda, quod in tria subregna divisa erat: Protistodeas, Metaphytodeas (plantas multicellulares), et Zoodeas (animalia multicellularia).

Index taxonomicus et exempla vitaeRecensere

 
Spermium & ovum
 
Euglenae
 
Fungus mucidus (fuligo septica)
 
Paramecium
 
Fucus
 
Algae silicatae (diatomae)
 
Algae
 
Fungus
 
Filix
 
Orchis (dactylorhiza)
 
Canna indica
 
Chrysanthemum
 
Salvia
 
Solanum
 
Rubus
 
Quercus
 
Passiflora
 
Vitis
 
Magnolia
 
Nautilus
 
Limulus
 
Coelacanthus
 
Tyrannosaurus rex
 
Pterodactylus
 
Plesiosaurus
 
Ichthyosaurus
 
Archaeopteryx
 
Platypus

Imperium: Vira (virus: est parasitus intracellularis, dubium est an animal sit)
Imperium: Cellulata

Superregio: Bacteria
Regio: Bacteria (utraque supra Eubacteria sunt, olim: Procaryota / Monera?)
Superregio: Archocaryota[3]
Regio[4]: Archaea / Archaebacteria
Regio: Eucaryota (qui nucleum habent in cellulis)
Subregio: Uniconta / Sarcomastigota (qui flagellum habent, ut: Eumycota, Amoebozoa, Choanozoa, Metazoa,...)
Infraregio: Opisthoconta (qui flagello propelluntur, vide regna: Fungi & Animalia)
Subregio: Biconta / Biciliata (vide infra: Chromalveolata, Excavata, Rhizaria, Archaeplastida, Apusozoa?)

RegnaRecensere

  • Regna: Protista (Archae-/ Protozoa, Protophyta), Fungi, Chromista?, Plantae & Animalia
  • (Supergreges: Amoebozoa, Archaeplastida, Chromalveolata, Excavata, Opisthoconta & Rhizaria)

Regnum: ProtistaRecensere

  • Regnum: Protista (qui plurimum unam cellulam habent: plancton)
  • Subregnum: Gymnomyxa (Lancester 1878), Protozoa, Archaezoa (obsol.)
  • Subregnum: Sarcomastigota (=Uniconta?)
    • (Phylum: Choanozoa (Cavalier-Smith 1981/83) / Neomonada (Cavalier-Smith, 1997)
    • Phylum: Rhizopoda / Sarcodina / Amoebozoa (Cavalier-Smith 1998, olim: regnum Archezoa)
    • (Pseudophylum Rhizopoda etiam continet Pseudopodia ut: Foraminifera, Heliozoa, Radiolaria)
      • Subphylum / Grex: Lobosa (Carpenter 1861 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1997 em.)
      • Subphylum / Grex: Conosa
      • Infraphylum: Archamoebae (chaos, pelomyxa, mastigina)
      • Infraphylum: Mycetozoa (Haeckel 1904)
        • Classis: Eumycetozoa (verus fungus mucidus)
        • Subclassis: Myxogastria (olim: Myxomycetes / Myxomycota, plasmodialis fungus mucidus), Dictyo-/ & Protostelia/-ida?)
          • Ordo: Physariida
        • Classis: Acrasiomycetes (cellularis fungus mucidus)
        • Subclassis: Euplasmodida
  • Subregnum: Corticata (Lankester 1878)
  • (=Archaeplastida & Chromalveolata, Excavata & Rhizaria = Cabozoa C.Smith)
  • (Subregnum: Biciliata (=Biconta?)
  • (Subregnum: (A)dictyozoa (Cavalier-Smith 1991) // Neozoa
    • Infraregnum / Superphylum Alveolata (Cavalier-Smith, 1991): Endoymbiosis!
      • Phylum: Apicomplexa
      • Phylum: Ciliophora / Ciliata
  • Infraregnum: Excavata (qui cystostomam (cavum vel sulcum ventralem) habent, Cavalier-Smith, 2003)
    • Superphylum: Discicristata
      • (Sub)Phylum: Percolozoa
      • (Sub)Phylum: Euglenozoa (Cavalier-Smith, 1981) // Euglenophyta
        • Classes: Euglenida, Cinetoplastea (Honigberg, 1963)
      • Phylum: Metamonada
      • Subphylum: Anaeromonada, Classis: Anaeromonadea (Ordo: Oxymonadida)
      • Subphylum: Trichozoa CS1997), Ramus: Parabasalia (Honigberg, 1973 / Cavalier-Smith, 2003)
      • Infraregnum / Phylum: Rhizaria (Cavalier-Smith, 1987/2002)

Regnum: ChromistaRecensere

  • Regnum: Chromista (Cavalier-Smith 1981) // Chromalveolata (?)
    • Infraregnum: Chromobionta / Phylum: Heteroconta / Stramenopila (Cavalier-Smith, 1986)
    • Supergrex: Archaeplastida (Adl &al. 2005) / Primoplantae (Palmer &al. 2004)
      • Phyla: Rhodophyta, Glaucophyta (algae) // Chlorophyta, Embryophyta (plantae)

Regnum: FungiRecensere

  • Regnum: Fungi / Mycota (fungus)
    • Divisio / Subregnum: Myxomycota (vide et amoebozoa)
    • Divisio / Subregnum: Eumycota
      • Divisio (Phylum): Basidiomycota
        • Classis: Basidiomycetes / Agaricomycetes / Hymenomycetes (?)
        • Subclassis: Agaricomycetidae
      • Divisio (Phylum): Euascomycota (multi fungi filamentosi)
      • Divisio (Phylum): Ascomycota / Pezizomycota
      • Subdivisio: Ascomycotina / Pezizomycotina
        • Classis: Ascomycetes / Pezizomycetes
        • Classis: Eurotiomycetes (?)
        • Subclassis: Eurotiomycetidae
      • Subdivisio: Saccharomycotina
      • Divisio (Phylum): Zygomycota

Regnum: PlantaeRecensere

Regnum: AnimaliaRecensere

NotaeRecensere

  1. ""Biota" apud WoRMS. Cf. Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the phyla of life on earth. 3a ed. Novi Eboraci: Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-3027-8
  2. Oxford English Dictionary (3a editio, 2010), s.v. "biota".
  3. ARCHOKARYOTA (URKERNTR+äGER) apud www.sthco.de
  4. Woese CR, Kandler O, Wheelis ML (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87 (12): 4576–9 

BibliographiaRecensere

Nexus interni

Nexus externiRecensere

  Situs scientifici:  • Encyclopedia of Life • WoRMS: Marine Species • Fossilworks