Calliphora augur whitebackground.jpg

Classis : Insecta 
Superordo : Panorpida 
Ordo : Diptera 
Linnaeus, 1758
   
Palaeontologia
245–0 m.a.Triassicum medium > Recens
Subdivisiones: Subordines

Diptera (Graece δίπτερα '(insecta) binis alis' < δι- 'duo' + πτερόν 'ala'), vulgo plerumque muscae appellatae, sunt ordo insectorum aliis dissimiles quia par alarum volatús in mesothorace et par halterum?, ab alis posterioribus deductorum, in metathorace possident, quibus, sensoribus magnarum celeritatum motus volventis, dipera multiplicibus aerobaticis fungi possunt.[1] Nonnullae dipterorum species posteriori evolutione artem volandi amiserunt. Alter insectorum ordo cui sunt binae alae volatús et halteres sunt Strepsiptera, quae contra Diptera halteres in mesothorace, alas volatús in metathorace gerunt. Diptera sunt magnus ordo, cui sunt 1 000 000 fere specierum.[2][3][4]

Una ex Tipulidis, halteribus aspectabilissimis.
1, coxa; 2, trocanter; 3, femur; 4. tibia; 5, tarsus; 6, ungues.

Dipteris est caput mobile, unum magnorum oculorum compositorum par, et membra oralia ad pungendum et sugendum in Culicidis, Simuliidis, Asilidis, aut ad lambendum in aliis gregibus designata. Propter collocationem alarum, diptera variissimis modis volant, ac propter ungues pedesque pulvinosos, superficiebus levibus adhaerent. Totam metamorphosin patiuntur. Ova in cibum ponuntur, et larvae, quae membris veris carent, in circumiectis protectis crescunt, saepe intra cibum. Pupa est capsula aliquantulum dura, ex qua adultus se excludit; vita autem adultorum plerumque est brevis.

Diptera sunt unus ex maioribus insectorum ordinibus, magni momenti oecologici et humani, avidi quoque pollinatores, secundi solum ab apibus aliisque hymenopteris. Diptera fortasse erant inter primos pollinatores evolutionarios. Drosophila pro organismis eximiis in investigationibus scientificis utilissima sunt, sed ex contrario culicidae sunt vectores malariae, febris dengue, febris Nili Occidentalis, febris flavae, encephalitis, aliorumque morborum infectiosorum; et muscae domesticae, cum hominibus per totum mundum commensales, morbos in cibo ortos dispergunt.

Coniunctiones cum aliis insectisRecensere

Diptera sunt endopterygota, insecta quae totam metamorphosin patiuntur. Ad Mecopterida pertinent, cum Mecopteris, Siphonapteris, Lepidopteris, Trichopteris.[5][6] Eorum proprietas est binae alae; nonnulla autem, sicut Hippoboscidae, alis secundarie carent.[7]

Cladogramma insequens hodiernam opinionem physicam repraesentat.[8]

pars Endopterygotorum
Mecopterida
Antliophora

Diptera  




Mecoptera (400 species) (praeter Boreidas)  




Boreidae (30 species)  



Siphonaptera (2500 species)  







Trichoptera  



Lepidoptera  





Hymenoptera  



 
Nematocerum fossile in sucino Dominicano: Lutzomyia adiketis (Psychodidae), Miocaeno ineunte, abhinc annorum 20 milliones fere.

Nexus interni

NotaeRecensere

  1. Dickinson, Michael H. (29 Maii 1999). "Haltere–mediated equilibrium reflexes of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 354 (1385): 903–916 .
  2. "Order Diptera: Flies". Iowa State University .
  3. Comstock, John Henry (1949). An Introduction to Entomology. Comstock Publishing. p. 773 .
  4. Mayhew, Peter J. (2007). "Why are there so many insect species? Perspectives from fossils and phylogenies". Biological Reviews 82 (3): 425–54 .
  5. Peters, Ralph S.; Meusemann, Karen; Petersen, Malte; Mayer, Christoph; Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Ziesmann, Tanja; Donath, Alexander; Kjer, Karl M. et al (2014). "The evolutionary history of holometabolous insects inferred from transcriptome-based phylogeny and comprehensive morphological data". BMC Evolutionary Biology 14 (1): 52 .
  6. "Taxon: Superorder Antliophora" .
  7. Hutson, A. M. (1984). Diptera: Keds, flat-flies & bat-flies (Hippoboscidae & Nycteribiidae). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects. 10 pt 7. Londinii: Royal Entomological Society of London. p. 84 .
  8. Yeates, David K.; Wiegmann, Brian. "Endopterygota Insects with complete metamorphosis" .

BibliographiaRecensere

  • Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich, et M. B. Mostovski. 2002. "Order Diptera." In The History of Insects, ed. A. P. Rasnitsyn et D. L. J. Quicke, 227–40. Kluwer.
  • Colless, D. H., et D. K. McAlpine. 1991. "Diptera (flies)." In The insects of Australia, 717–86. The Division of Entomology. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Canberrae: Melbourne University Press.
  • Haupt, Joachim, et Hiroko Haupt. 1998. Fliegen und Mücken: Beobachtung, Lebensweise. Augsburg: Naturbuch. ISBN 3-89440-278-4.
  • Hennig, Willi. "Diptera (Zweifluger)." In Handb. Zool. Berl. 4 (2) (31):1–337.
  • Lindner, Erwin. 1949. Handbuch. Stutgardiae: Schweizerbart. Die Fliegen der paläarktischen Region, 1.
  • Oldroyd, Harold. 1964. The Natural History of Flies. Londinii: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
  • Oldroyd, Harold. 1965. The Natural History of Flies. Novi Eboraci: W. W. Norton.
  • Schumann, H., R. Bährmann, et A. Stark, eds. 1999. Checkliste der Dipteren Deutschland. Halle: Ampyx. ISBN 3-932795-01-6.
  • Séguy, Eugène. 19241953. Diptera: recueil d'etudes biologiques et systematiques sur les Dipteres du Globe. 11 vol. Encyclopedie Entomologique, serie B II: Diptera.
  • Séguy, Eugène. 1950. La Biologie des Dipteres.
  • Thompson, F. Christian. "Sources for the Biosystematic Database of World Diptera (Flies)." Systematic Entomology Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture. PDF.

Nexus externiRecensere

  Situs scientifici:  • ITIS • NCBI • Biodiversity • Encyclopedia of Life • WoRMS: Marine Species • Fossilworks
  • De Dipteris. Situs interretiale Universitatis civitatis Carolinae Septentrionalis.