Philosophia

studium sapientiae vel veritatis, per investigationem principiorum cogitationis humanorumque factorum
(Redirectum de Philosophus)
Vide etiam paginam fere homonymam: 227 Philosophia.

Philosophia (etymologice 'amor sapientiae', Graece φιλεῖν 'amare' + σοφία 'sapientia') est studium sapientiae vel veritatis, per investigationem principiorum cogitationis humanorumque factorum. Qui philosophiae se dedicant philosophi nominantur. "Philosophia individua dimittit; neque impressiones primas individuorum, sed notiones ab illis abstractas complectitur; atque hoc prorsus officium est atque opificium rationis."[1]

Philosophia et artes liberales.

Vocabulum philosophiae a Pythagora fictum est, quia sapientiam privilegium divinum putabat; ipse autem se sapientem (sophos) haberi nolebat. Amator sapientiae (vel scientiae) igitur dici malebat.

Philosophia hodierna multas definitiones habet, inter eas:

  • Criticum studium omnium humanarum quaestionum;
  • Rationale studium omnis sapientiae humanae;
  • Studium quaestionum, quibus responsa non sint absoluta.

Partes speciales philosophiae sunt philosophia mentis, philosophia scientiarum, philosophia orationis, philosophia historiae, philosophia religionis, et ceterae.

Notiones philosophiae recensere

Inter notiones philosophicas sunt philosophari; esse, essentia, quidditas, haecceitas, substantia, exsistentia, res, realitas; perceptio, spatium, tempus, conscientia, veritas; ratio, mens, memoria, voluntas, desiderium; bonus, officium, virtus, libertas; natura, societas, iustitia, potestas, civitas; ars, labor, historia, illuminatio, cosmotheoria.

Divisio recensere

Praecipuae philosophiae notiones realitatis et veritatis (in metaphysica, logica, et ontologia), sapientiae (in epistemologia), boni et iustitiae (in ethice et oeconomia politica), et pulchritudinis (in aesthetica) sunt.

Philosophia dividitur in:

1. Philosophia essendi (seu metaphysica), quae subdividitur in:

1.1 Metaphysica generalis (seu ontologia) et

1.2 Metaphysica specialis.

Ontologia dividitur in:

1.1.1 Generalis,

1.1.2 Aetiologia et

1.1.3 Categorologia.

Metaphysica specialis dividitur in:

1.2.1 Theologia naturalis (seu theodicea seu soteriologia),

1.2.2 Cosmologia (seu philosophia naturae, cosmologia metaphysica, cosmologia philosophica) et

1.2.3 Philosophia hominis (seu psychologia metaphysica, psychologia philosophica, psychologia rationalis, anthropologia philosophica).

2. Philosophia cognoscendi (seu critica, epistemologia, gnosologia, theoria cognitionis, phaenomenologia, logica materialis, logica maior, criteriologia, ideologia, methodologia)

3. Philosophia operandi (seu ethica, philosophia moralis, moralitas, axiologia (in qua aesthetica, calologia seu theoria artis est) et sociologia philosophica). Subdividitur in:

3.1 Ethica generalis et iustitia socialis

3.2 Ethica specialis (in qua philosophia politica vel oeconomia politica est).

Logica (logica formalis seu logica minor) scientia quae agitur de causis alteris non est, sed de causis inmediatis. Cum mathematica, scientiae formales sunt.

Historia philosophiae recensere

Plurum philosophorum nomina discere poteris s.v. index philosophorum.

Philosophia Occidentalis recensere

Graecia recensere

 
Mors Socratis, pictura ab Iacobus Ludovico David anno 1787 picta. Socrates venenum Conii bibiturus est.
 
Plato (laeva) et Aristoteles (dextra): pars Scholae Athenarum, a Raphaelo anno 1509 picta.
Origo philosophiae recensere

Occidentalis traditio coepit in Graecia. Res prima fuit indagatio ἀρχῆς id est principii mundi. Philosophi praeclari fuerunt:

Philosophia classica recensere

Circa 400 a.C.n., disputatio facta est cogitatio de homine. Philosophi, qui creaverunt classicam philosophiam in Europa, fuerunt:

Philosophia hellenistica recensere

Roma recensere

Romani eandem ferme viam rationemque philosophandi, i.e. sapientiam adfectandi, secuti sunt ac Graeci. Praeclari philosophi erant:

Mediaevalis philosophia recensere

 
Sanctus Thomas Aquinas.

Philosophia Temporis Renatarum Artium recensere

 
Marsilius Ficinus.
 
Iordanus Brunus.

Hodierna philosophia recensere

 
Ioannes Lockius.
 
Renatus Cartesius (Franciscus Hals pinxit).
 
Immanuel Kant.

Philosophia pessimismi recensere

Philosophia Institiae Socialiae recensere

Philosophia neo-Aristoteliana recensere

Philosophia analytica recensere

Philosophia marxistica recensere
Philosophia existentialistica recensere
Philosophia post-moderna recensere
Philosophia phaenomenologica recensere

Hermeneutica recensere

Philosophia Sinica recensere

Philosophia Confuciana recensere

Philosophia Daoistica recensere

Philosophia Mociana recensere

Aliae doctrinae recensere

Philosophia Indica recensere

Philosophia Brahmanica recensere

Philosophia Buddhica recensere

Nexus interni

Notae recensere

  1. Franciscus Baco, De dignitate.

Bibliographia recensere

  • Bullock, Alan, R. B. Woodings, et John Cumming, eds. (1983), 1992. The Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thinkers. Fontana Originals. Hammersmith Angliae.: Fontana Press. ISBN 9780006369653.
  • Bullock, Alan, et Oliver Stallybrass, eds. 1977. The Harper Dictionary of Modern Thought. Novi Eboraci: Harper & Row. ISBN 9780060105785.
  • Julia, Didier. 2006. Dictionnaire de la philosophie. Responsable éditorial, Emmanuel de Waresquiel; secretariat de rédaction, Joelle Narjollet. Lutetiae: Larousse. ISBN 9782035833099.
  • Reese, W. L. 1980. Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion: Eastern and Western Thought. Atlantic Highlands Novae Caesareae: Humanities Press. ISBN 9780391006881.

Praefationes recensere

Res recensere

  • Copleston, Frederick. Philosophy in Russia: From Herzen to Lenin and Berdyaev. ISBN 9780268015695.
  • Critchley, Simon. Continental Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction. ISBN 9780192853592.
  • Hamilton, Sue. Indian Philosophy: a Very Short Introduction. ISBN 9780192853745.
  • Harwood, Sterling, ed. 2000. Business as Ethical and Business as Usual. Belmont Californiae: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
  • Imbo, Samuel Oluoch. An Introduction to African Philosophy. ISBN 9780847688418.
  • Knight, Kelvin. Aristotelian Philosophy: Ethics and Politics from Aristotle to MacIntyre. ISBN 9780745619774.
  • Kupperman, Joel J. Classic Asian Philosophy: A Guide to the Essential Texts. ISBN 9780195133356.
  • Leaman, Oliver. A Brief Introduction to Islamic Philosophy. ISBN 9780745619606.
  • Lee, Joe and Powell, Jim. Eastern Philosophy For Beginners. ISBN 9780863162824.
  • Nagel, Thomas. What Does It All Mean? A Very Short Introduction to Philosophy. ISBN 9780195052923.
  • Scruton, Roger. A Short History of Modern Philosophy. ISBN 9780415267632.
  • Smart, Ninian. World Philosophies. ISBN 9780415228527.
  • Tarnas, Richard. The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View. ISBN 9780345368096.

Anthologiae recensere

  • Classics of Philosophy (Vols. 1 & 2, 2nd edition), ed. Louis P. Pojman
  • Classics of Philosophy: The 20th Century (Vol. 3), ed. Louis P. Pojman
  • The English Philosophers from Bacon to Mill, ed. Edwin Arthur
  • European Philosophers from Descartes to Nietzsche, ed. Monroe Beardsley
  • Contemporary Analytic Philosophy: Core Readings, ed. James Baillie
  • Existentialism: Basic Writings, ed. 2a., ed. Charles Guignon, Derk Pereboom
  • The Phenomenology Reader ed. Dermot Moran, Timothy Mooney
  • Medieval Islamic Philosophical Writings, ed. Muhammad Ali Khalidi
  • A Source Book in Indian Philosophy, ed. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Charles A. Moore
  • A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy, ed. Wing-tsit Chan
  • Kim, J., et Ernest Sosa, ed. 1999. Metaphysics: An Anthology. Blackwell Philosophy Anthologies. Oxford, Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
  • The Oxford Handbook of Free Will 2004. Ed. Robert Kane
  • Husserl, Edmund, et Donn Welton. 1999. The Essential Husserl: Basic Writings in Transcendental Phenomenology. Bloomingtoniae: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253212733.
  • Cottingham, John. 2008. Western Philosophy: An Anthology. Ed. secunda. Malden Massachusettae: Blackwell Publishing. Blackwell Philosophy Anthologies.

Opera referentiae recensere

  • Chan, Wing-tsit (1963). A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691019649 
  • Huang, Siu-chi (1999). Essentials of Neo-Confucianism: Eight Major Philosophers of the Song and Ming Periods. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 031326449X 
  • The Oxford Companion to Philosophy ed. Ted Honderich
  • The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy a Robert Audi
  • The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (10 vols.) ed. Edward Craig, Luciano Floridi
  • The Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy ed. Edward Craig. Imminutio.
  • Encyclopedia of Philosophy (8 vol.), ed. Paulo Edwards.
  • International Directory of Philosophy and Philosophers. Charlottesville: Philosophy Documentation Center.
  • Directory of American Philosophers. Charlottesville: Philosophy Documentation Center.
  • Routledge History of Philosophy (10 vol.) ed. John Marenbon
  • History of Philosophy (9 vol.) a Frederick Copleston
  • A History of Western Philosophy (5 vols.) a W. T. Jones
  • History of Italian Philosophy (2 vol.) a Eugenio Garin.
  • Encyclopaedia of Indian Philosophies (8 vol.), edited by Karl H. Potter et al. (first 6 volumes out of print)
  • Indian Philosophy (2 vol.) ed. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
  • A History of Indian Philosophy (5 vol.) ed. Surendranath Dasgupta
  • History of Chinese Philosophy (2 vol.) ed. Fung Yu-lan, Derk Bodde
  • Instructions for Practical Living and Other Neo-Confucian Writings by Wang Yang-ming ed. Chan, Wing-tsit
  • Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy ed. Antonio S. Cua
  • Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion ed. Ingrid Fischer-Schreiber, Franz-Karl Ehrhard, Kurt Friedrichs
  • Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy ed. Brian Carr, Indira Mahalingam
  • A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English ed. John A. Grimes
  • History of Islamic Philosophy ed. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Oliver Leaman
  • History of Jewish Philosophy ed. Daniel H. Frank, Oliver Leaman
  • A History of Russian Philosophy: From the Tenth to the Twentieth Centuries a Valerii Aleksandrovich Kuvakin

Addita recensere

  • Ayer, A. J., et al., ed. 1994. A Dictionary of Philosophical Quotations. Blackwell Reference Oxford. Oxoniae: Basil Blackwell Ltd.
  • Blackburn, S., ed. 1996. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Angeles, P. A., ed. 1992. The Harper Collins Dictionary of Philosophy. Novi Eboraci: Harper Perennial.
  • Bunnin, N., et al., ed. 1996. The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy. Blackwell Companions to Philosophy. Oxoniae: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
  • Hoffman, Eric, ed. 1997. Guidebook for Publishing Philosophy. Charlottesville: Philosophy Documentation Center.
  • Mauter, T., ed. The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy. Londinii: Penguin Books.
  • Popkin, R. H. 1999. The Columbia History of Western Philosophy. Novi Eboraci: Columbia University Press.
  • Runes, D., ed. 1942. The Dictionary of Philosophy. Novi Eboraci: The Philosophical Library, Inc.

Nexus externi recensere