-2 Latinitas huius rei dubia est. Corrige si potes. Vide {{latinitas}}.
Vide etiam paginam discretivam: Israël (discretiva).

Civitas Israël[1] (Hebraice מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל Medīnat Yisrā'el ; Arabice دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل Dawlat Isrāʼīl), breviter Israël,[2] est respublica parlamentaria in Medio Oriente sub Maris Mediterranei litore sita, diversarum intra parvam suam aream geographicarum proprietatum. A septentrionibus Libanum et Syriam attingit, ab oriente Iordaniam et Ripam Occidentalem, a meridie Aegyptum et Sectorem Gazensem. est.[3][4] Suis legibus definitus "Civitas Iudaica et Democratica", Israël est sola in orbe terrarum civitas ubi Iudaei aliis gentibus praevalent.[5]

Wikidata Israël
Res apud Vicidata repertae:
Israël: insigne
Israël: insigne
Israël: vexillum
Israël: vexillum
Terra continens: Asia
Territoria finitima: Syria, Iordania, Aegyptus, Libanus
Locus: 31°0′0″N 35°0′0″E
Caput: Hierosolyma

Populus

Numerus: 872 700, 7 412 200, 8 463 400, 8 654 900, 8 796 200, 8 891 800, 9 093 000, 9 840 000
Sermo publicus: lingua Hebraica
Zona horaria: Israel time zone, Israel Summer Time, Asia/Jerusalem, UTC+2, UTC+3
Moneta: new shekel

Commemoratio

Paean: התקוה

Sigla

ISO IL, ISR, 376; IOC ISR
Dominium interretiale: .il, ישראל.
Praefixum telephonicum: +972
Siglum autoraedarum: IL

Tabula aut despectus

Israël: situs
Israël: situs

Linguae recensere

Solum lingua Hebraica est lingua publica; incolae autem Hebraica, Arabica, aliisque linguis late utuntur. Non pauci inter sese Russice, nonnulli etiam Iudaeogermanica lingua loquuntur, et pueri puellaque linguam Anglicam in scholis discunt

Religiones recensere

Fabula in Bibliis Sacris recensere

Iudaei eam terram, quam nunc Israel appellant, sibi ab deo suo datam esse (Liber Iosue 1, 1-5) arbitrantur. Est enim in Bibliis Sacris:

Et factum est, ut post mortem Moysi servi Domini loqueretur Dominus ad Iosue filium Nun ministrum Moysi et diceret ei:

"Moyses servus meus mortuus est; nunc igitur surge et transi Iordanem istum, tu et omnis populus iste, in terram, quam ego dabo filiis Israël. Omnem locum, quem calcaverit vestigium pedis vestri, vobis tradidi, sicut locutus sum Moysi.

A deserto et Libano isto usque ad fluvium magnum Euphraten, omnis terra Hetthaeorum usque ad mare Magnum contra solis occasum erit terminus vester."

Historia recensere

Antiquitus recensere

 
Stella Davidis, signum Iudaismi post Medium Aevum.
 
Theodorus Herzl, Sionismi fautor maximus (anno 1901).
 
Divisio Palaestinae a Consociatione Nationum anno 1947 proposita.

Anno 586 a.C.n., cum Nabuchodonosor II rex Babylonis, terram Iudaeam expugnavisset et Templum Salomonicum evertisset, Babylonii septuaginta annos in eam terram regnaverunt, sed cum anno 533 a.C.n. Cyrus II cum exercitu superavisset, Persae ab anno 533 a.C.n. ad 332 a.C.n. regnaverunt. Anno 332 a.C.n., Alexander Magnus regionem superavit.

Duobus bellis cum Romanis (annis 70 et 135) gestis et praecipue templo Hierosolymorum ab imperatore Tito (anno 70) diruto, magna Iudaeorum pars ex Israël fugit. Anno 135, post secundum excidium, Romani Hierosolyma restituerunt, novoque nomine appellaverunt Aeliam Capitolinam.

Recentioribus temporibus recensere

Iam anno 1917, Arthurus Balfour Scoticus suasit, ut Iudaei in Palaestinam redirent et quamprimum priori bello mundano fini imposito Imperium Ottomanicum, quod antea Palaestinam tenuerat, ruissent.

Post secundum bellum mundanum et Iudaeorum in Europa persecutionem, 1947 anno 29 die Novembris, Consociatio Nationum Palaestinam proposuerunt inter Iudaeos et Arabes distribuendam.

Die 14 Maii 1948, civitas Israël rite condita est. Quamquam iuxta resolutionem, qua civitas creata erat, urbs Hierosolyma nec ab Iudeis nec Arabis, sed Britanniarum Regno regenda esset, tamen 1950 anno, Israël caput suum Hierosolyma declaravit. Principio civitati superficies 14 000 km² erat. 1948 et 1967 vero annis, ager 8000 km² ulterius expugnatus est et usquedum retinetur. Quam enim terram colonis adductis Israël sibi vindicare molitur.

Anno 1967, Israël Bello Sex Dierum ripam occidentalem Iordanis occupans intra Palaestinorum fines colonias condidit. Quo ex bello contentio Arabo-Israëlitica, scilicet dissensio inter Israël, Palaestinenses, Arabes, orta est.

Anno 1973, expiationis die, quae Iudaeis sanctissima est, et Aegyptus et Syria Israële oppugnato, a terra propulsati sunt. Qua victoria Aegyptus coacta est, ut Israëlem civitatem iure agnoscerent.

Urbes principales recensere

Nexus interni

Notae recensere

  1. "De Colonis Hebraeis e Gaza Expulsis", Ephemeris (Fasc. 61) (Ephemeris), 2005 .
  2. "Israël -is, m.": Carolus Egger, Diurnarius Latinus. Epitome actorum diurnorum in lingua Latina. (1980. ISBN 88-209-4366-2) p. 35 .
  3. "Israël", CIA Factbook (CIA) .
  4. Skolnik 2007, pp. 132–232.
  5. "Israël", Country Report (Freedom House), 2007 .
  6. Iud. 1.17.
  7. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854).
  8. In Vulgata.
  9. Scripturae Sacrae cursus completus.

Bibliographia recensere

  • Abadi, Jacob (2004), Israël's Quest for Recognition and Acceptance in Asia: Garrison State Diplomacy, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-5576-7 
  • Ausubel, Natan (1964), The Book of Jewish Knowledge, Novi Eboraci: Crown Publishers, ISBN 0-517-09746-X 
  • Barton, John; Bowden, Julie (2004), The Original Story: God, Israël and the World, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, ISBN 0-8028-2900-7 
  • Barzilai, Gad (1996), Wars, Internal Conflicts, and Political Order: A Jewish Democracy in the Middle East, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-2943-1 
  • Barzilai, Gad (2010), The Attorney General and the State Prosecutor-Is Institutional Separation Warrented?, The Israël Democracy Institute 
  • Ben-Sasson, Hayim (1985), A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-39731-6 
  • Best, Anthony (2003), International History of the Twentieth Century, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-20739-8 
  • Bregman, Ahron (2002), A History of Israël, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-67631-9 
  • Broughton, Simon; Ellingham, Mark; Trillo, Richard (1999), World Music: The Rough Guide, Rough Guides, ISBN 1-85828-635-2 
  • Cole, Tim (2003), Holocaust City: The Making of a Jewish Ghetto, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-92968-7 
  • Crowdy, Terry (2006), The Enemy Within: A History of Espionage, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-933-9 
  • Dekmejian, R. Hrair (1975), Patterns of Political Leadership: Egypt, Israël, Lebanon, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-87395-291-X 
  • Friedland, Roger; Hecht, Richard (2000), To Rule Jerusalem, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-22092-7 
  • Gelvin, James L. (2005), The Israël-Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-85289-7 
  • Gilbert, Martin (2005), The Routledge Atlas Of The Arab–Israël conflict (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 0-415-35900-7 
  • Goldreich, Yair (2003), The Climate of Israël: Observation, Research and Application, Springer, ISBN 0-306-47445-X 
  • Hamilton, Victor P. (1995), The Book of Genesis (2a retractata ed.), Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, ISBN 0-8028-2309-2 
  • Harkavy, Robert E.; Neuman, Stephanie G. (2001), Warfare and the Third World, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-312-24012-0 
  • Henderson, Robert D'A. (2003), Brassey's International Intelligence Yearbook (2003 ed.), Brassey's Inc., ISBN 1-57488-550-2 
  • Herzl, Theodor (1946), The Jewish State, American Zionist Emergency Council, ISBN 0-486-25849-1 
  • Howe, Kathleen Stewart (1997), Revealing the Holy Land: the photographic exploration of Palestine, University of California Press, p. 144, ISBN 978-0-89951-095-8 
  • Jacobs, Daniel (1988), Israël and the Palestinian Territories: The Rough Guide (2a retractata ed.), Rough Guides, ISBN 1-85828-248-9 
  • Kellerman, Aharon (1993), Society and Settlement: Jewish Land of Israël in the Twentieth Century, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-1295-4 
  • Kornberg, Jacques (1993), Theodor Herzl: From Assimilation to Zionism, Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-33203-6 
  • Liebreich, Fritz (2005), Britain's Naval and Political Reaction to the Illegal Immigration of Jews to Palestine, 1945–1948, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-5637-2 
  • Lustick, Ian (1988), For the Land and the Lord: Jewish Fundamentalism in Israël, Council on Foreign Relations Press, ISBN 0-87609-036-6 
  • Mazie, Steven (2006), Israel's Higher Law: Religion and Liberal Democracy in the Jewish State, Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-1485-9 
  • Morçöl, Göktuğ (2006), Handbook of Decision Making, CRC Press, ISBN 1-57444-548-0 
  • Mowlana, Hamid; Gerbner, George; Schiller, Herbert I. (1992), Triumph of the File: The Media's War in the Persian Gulf — A Global Perspective, Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-1610-3 
  • Roberts, Adam (1990), "Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israëli-Occupied Territories Since 1967", The American Journal of International Law (American Society of International Law) 84 (1): 44–103 
  • Romano, Amy (2003), A Historical Atlas of Israel, The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 0-8239-3978-2 
  • Reveron, Derek S.; Murer, Jeffrey Stevenson (2006), Flashpoints in the War on Terrorism, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-95490-8 
  • Rosenzweig, Rafael (1997), The Economic Consequences of Zionism, T Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09147-5 
  • Rummel, Rudolph J. (1997), Power Kills: Democracy As a Method of Nonviolence, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0-7658-0523-5 
  • Sampter, Jessie (2007) [1933], "Jewish Colonization Before 1917", in Sampter, Jessie, Modern Palestine – A Symposium, READ BOOKS, p. 444, ISBN 978-1-4067-3834-6 
  • Scharfstein, Sol (1996), Understanding Jewish History, KTAV Publishing House, ISBN 0-88125-545-9 
  • Shindler, Colin (2002), The Land Beyond Promise: Israël, Likud and the Zionist Dream, I.B.Tauris Publishers, ISBN 1-86064-774-X 
  • Skolnik, Fred (2007), Encyclopedia Judaica, 9 (2a ed.), Macmillian, ISBN 0-02-865928-7 
  • Smith, Derek (2006), Deterring America: Rogue States and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-86465-8 
  • Stein, Leslie (2003), The Hope Fulfilled: The Rise of Modern Israël, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-275-97141-4 
  • Stendel, Ori (1997), The Arabs in Israel, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 1-898723-23-0 
  • Stone, Russell A.; Zenner, Walter P. (1994), Critical Essays on Israëli Social Issues and Scholarship, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-1959-2 
  • Torstrick, Rebecca L. (2004), Culture and Customs of Israël, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-32091-8 
  • Wenham, Gordon J. (1994), Word Biblical Commentary, 2, (Genesis 16–50), Dallasiae Texiae: Word Books, ISBN 0-8499-0201-0 

Nexus externi recensere


Israël : politica
Ministri rerum externarum Israëlis
Israël : geographica
Provinciae Israëlis