Cyprinus carpio, Latinitate tardiore carpa,[2] est divulgatus aquae dulcis species piscium subfamiliae Cyprininarum ordinis Cypriniformium, qui aquas eutrophicas in lacubus magnisque fluminibus Europaeis Asiaticisque petit.[3][4] Multitudines ferae habentur exstinctione vulnerabiles ab International Union for Conservation of Nature,[1] sed species domita est, atque in circumiecta per paene totum orbem terrarum introducta est (vide "aquaculturam"), et saepe habetur species invasiva,[3] unde in indice centum mundi specierum maxime invasivarum perscribitur. Familia Cyprinidarum ex eo appellatur.


Superclassis : Osteichthyes 
Classis : Actinopterygii 
Subclassis : Neopterygii 
Infraclassis : Teleostei 
Superordo : Ostariophysi 
Ordo : Cypriniformes 
Superfamilia : Cyprinioidea 
Familia : Cyprinidae 
Subfamilia : Cyprininae 
Genus : Cyprinus 
Species : Cyprinus carpio 
Linnaeus, 1758
   
Conservationis status

Taxinomia recensere

 
"Carpio communis" [Cyprinus carpio]. Pictura ab Alexandro Francisco Lydon facta.

Speciei sunt duae subspecies.

Tertia subspecies, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus (carpio Amurensis), in Asia Orientali endemicus, olim agnoscebatur,[5] sed auctoritates eum separatam tractant speciem nomine Cyprinus rubrofuscus.[1][6] Cyprinus carpio et varii cognati Asiani morphologice puri meristica separari possunt, et genetice inter se differunt, sed progenies inter se gignunt.[1][7] Cyprinus carpio cum Carassio aurato progenies gignere potest.[8][9]

Historia recensere

 
Cyprinus carpio ferus in Nederlandia.

Cyprinus carpio in Europa et Asia endemicus est: regio ubi carpae primum inveniebantur a media Europa ad Pontem Euxinum, Mare Caspium, et Lacum Oxianum extendebatur. Insuper constat carpas in interiore fluminis Danubii delta abhinc annorum 2000 fere habitavisse.[10] Aevo Mesolithico homines ad Vlasac iuxta ripam Danubii superioris habitantes carpas crebriter consumebant ut ex aristis plurimis ibi repertis constat.[11] Carpas Aristoteles Graece descripsit, sed e quo flumine nescimus.[12] Anno fere 535 ad cenas regis Theoderici in Italia celebratis carpae in Danubio captae mittebantur.[13] Antiquissima recepta culinaria e saeculo XIV nobis servantur, unum e Lutetia Franciae, alterum e Pechino Sinarum.[14] Medio saeculo XVII Isaacius Walton carpas inter praecipuos pisces fluviatiles Angliae enumeravit.[15]

In omnes orbis terrarum regiones praeter polos introductae sunt. Loco tertio ordinantur inter pisces crebrissime introductos.[16][17] Carpiones cibo in multis regionibus prosunt, sed etiam pestes in aliis regionibus habentur.[18]

Notae recensere

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 IUCN (vide situs scientificos)
  2. Cassiodorus
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Fishbase: Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758.
  4. Arkive: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).
  5. 5.0 5.1 Jian Feng Zhou, Qing Jiang Wu, Yu Zhen Ye & Jin Gou Tong (2003), "Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp." Genetica 119: 93–97.
  6. Craig (2015) p. 297
  7. Zhou et al. (2004)
  8. Taylor et Mahon (1977)
  9. Photo of goldfish x common carp hybrid Formula:Webarchive in Melton Hill Reservoir, ex Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency.
  10. E. K. Balon, "About the oldest domesticates among fishes," Journal of Fish Biology vol. 65 suppl. A (2004) pp. 1–27
  11. Currie (1991); B. Prinz, Mesolithic Adaptations on the Lower Danube: Vlasac and the Iron Gates Gorge (Oxoniae: British Archaeological Reports, 1987) pp. 58, 61
  12. Aristoteles
  13. Cassiodorus
  14. Hu; Mesnagier
  15. Walton (1653)
  16. Courtenay et Welcomme (1989) p. 520
  17. Balon, Eugene K. (1974), "Probable Origin of Domestication", Domestication of the carp Cyprinus caprio L., Royal Ontario Museum, pp. 16–18 .
  18. "Common Carp: Aliens Among Us" apud Royal Museum of British Columbia

Bibliographia recensere

 
Sceletus Cyprini carpionis.
 
Photographema radiographicum Cyprini carpionis.
 
Cyprini carpiones ex Multavia, flumine in Republica Cechiana.
Fontes antiquiores
Eruditio
  • J. F. Craig, ed., Freshwater Fisheries Ecology. Wiley-Blackwell, 2015. ISBN 978-1-118-39442-7
  • Christopher K. Currie, "The Early History of the Carp and Its Economic Significance in England" in Agricultural History Review vol. 39 (1991) pp. 97-107 JSTOR
  • J. Taylor, R. Mahon, "Hybridization of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus, the first two exotic species in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes" in Environmental Biology of Fishes vol. 1 (1977) pp. 205–208
  • J. Zhou et al., "Molecular Phylogenetics of Three Subspecies of Common carp Cyprinus Carpio, based on sequence analysis of cytochrome b and control region of mtDNA" in Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research vol. 42 (2004) pp. 266–269
De piscicultura
  • "Poles forced to fork out more for Christmas carp as prices soar" in The Guardian (21 Decembris 2022)
  • Walter R. Courtenay, R. L. Welcomme, "International Introductions of Inland Aquatic Species" in Copeia (1989) no. 2 p. 520. doi:10.2307/1445460 JSTOR
  • Peter J. Smith, S. Margaret McVeagh, Genetic Analysis of Carp, Goldfish and Carp-Goldfish-Hybrids in New Zealand (DOC Research and Development Series, 29). New Zealand Department of Conservation, 2005
Praecepta culinaria
  • 1330 : Hu Si-hui, Propria ad mensam Imperatoris principia (Paul D. Buell, Eugene N. Anderson, edd. et interprr., A Soup for the Qan: Chinese dietary medicine of the Mongol era as seen in Hu Szu-hui's Yin-shan cheng-yao [Londinii: Kegan Paul, 2000] pp. 294, 306, 311)
  • c. 1393 : Le Mesnagier de Paris (Jérôme Pichon, ed., Le ménagier de Paris ... par un bourgeois parisien (Lutetiae, 1846-1847) vol. 2 pp. 88-90, 189, 195, 233-234 ("Galentine pour carpe" etc.)
  • 1654 : Iosephus Cooper, The Art of Cookery Refin'd and Augmented, containing an Abstract of Some Rare and Rich Unpublished Receipts of Cookery collected from the Practise of that Incomparable Master of These Arts, Mr. Jos. Cooper, Chiefe Cook to the Late King. Londinii: R. Lowndes (pp. 28-30, 111-113 apud Google Books) ("How to stew a carp ... How to make a carpe-pie")
  • 1658 : Théodore de Mayerne, Archimagirus Anglo-Gallicus; or, excellent and approved receipts and experiments in cookery. Londinii: Bedell and Collins, 1658 (p. 41 apud Google Books) ("A bisque of carps")
  • 1665 : Robert May, The Accomplisht Cook. Londinii: Wood (pp. 303-304 apud Google Books) ("a bisque of carps ... a bisk with carps and other several fishes")
  • 1796 : Yuan Mei, Suiyuan shidan (Sean J. S. Chen, ed. et interpr., 糟鯗 = Xiang in Wine-lees)
Aliae encyclopaediae

Nexus externi recensere

  Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Cyprinum carpionem spectant.
  Situs scientifici:  • ITIS • NCBI • Biodiversity • IUCN Red List • WoRMS: Marine Species • FishBase • INPN France