Systema periodicum

tabularis elementorum chemicorum
(Redirectum de Systema Periodicum)

Systema periodicum, plenius systema periodicum elementorum (chemicorum)[1] appellatum, est tabularis elementorum chemicorum ostentatio, quae latissime in chemia, physica, aliisque scientiis adhibetur, atque in universum icon chemiae videtur. Haec graphica legis periodicae formula dicit proprietates elementorum chemicorum fiduciam in suis numeris atomicis periodice exhibere.

Demetrius Mendeleev, inter quondam systematis periodici versiones creator versionis nostrae. Imago ab Elia Repin ab anno 1885 picta.

Formula systematis periodici in quattuor fere regiones rectangulares dividitur, stipites appellatas. Ordines systematis periodi, columnae autem greges appellantur. Elementa in eodem grege similes proprietates chemicas monstrant. Inclinationes per systema inveniuntur, ubi proprietates non metallicae (quae suos electrones tenent) a laeva ad dextram trans periodum et ab ima ad summam gregis partem crescunt, ac proprietates metallicae (quae electrones aliis atomis dent) cursu contrario crescunt. Principalis harum inclinationum causa est figura electronum intra atomos.

Praecursores huius systematis exstant, sed id latissime habetur inventum Demetrii Mendeleev anno 1869 factum, chemici Russici qui constantes periodicasque proprietatum elementorum mutationes illustrare volebat. Suus lex periodica dicit proprietates chemicas in massa atomica poni. Quia omnia elementia tum nondum agnoscebantur, huic tabulae erant lacunae, et Mendeleev, lege periodica feliciter utens, proprietates nonnullorum ex elementis absentibus praedicavit. Lex periodica saeculo undevicensimo exeunte accepta est, et explicari coepit numero atomico invento et mechanica quantica saeculo vicensimo expolita, quae internam atomi structuram illuminavit. Anno 1945, cum Glenn T. Seaborg actinida reapse esse elementa stipitis-f, non stipitis-d inveniret, manifeste hodierna tabulae forma creata est. Tabula et lex periodica nunc sunt fundamentalis et necessaria chemiae hodiernae pars. Nova theoriae exemplaria excogitata sunt ut mores chemicos explicentur.[2] Elaboratum postea est etiam systema periodicum extensum ultra septimum periodum, quod hodie tantum theoricum est.

Systema periodicum iam mutatur, scientia progrediente. Quia solum elementa usque ad numerum atomicum nonagesimum quartum in natura exstant, chemici huius aetatis, ad systema porro augendum, nova elementa in laboratorio per synthesin artificiosam necessarie componunt. Hodie prima systematis elementa centum et duodeviginti omnino agnoscuntur, primos septem tabulae ordines conficientes, sed investigationes proprietatum chemicarum carent, et iam ignotum est num proprietates elementorum gravissimorum cum eorum locis congruant, nec cognoscitur spatium ubi tabula praeter hos ordines septem extendetur et num exemplaria partis tabulae iam notae in hanc regionem ignotam extendentur. Chemici etiam disputant utrum loci nonnullorum elementorum in tabula hodierna veri sunt, necne. Multae alternae legis periodicae repraesentationes concipi possunt,[3] et non iam constat inter eruditos num esse optima tabulae periodicae forma.

SystemaRecensere

Systema periodicum
Grex 1 2 3   4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Metalla alcalica Metalla alkalica terrena Pnicto­genia Chalco­genia Halogenia Gasa nobilia
Periodus

1

Hydro­genium1H Helium2He
2 Lith­ium3Li Beryl­lium4Be Borium5B Carbonium6C Nitro­genium7N Oxy­genium8O Fluorum9F Neon10Ne
3 Natrium11Na Magne­sium12Mg Alumin­ium13Al Silicium14Si Phos­phorus15P Sulphur16S Chlorum17Cl Argon18Ar
4 Kalium19K Cal­cium20Ca Scan­dium21Sc Tita­nium22Ti Vana­dium23V Chrom­ium24Cr Manga­num25Mn Ferrum26Fe Cobaltum27Co Niccolum28Ni Cuprum29Cu Zincum30Zn Gallium31Ga Germa­nium32Ge Arsenicum33As Sele­nium34Se Bromium35Br Kryp­ton36Kr
5 Rubid­ium37Rb Stront­ium38Sr Yttrium39Y Zirco­nium40Zr Nio­bium41Nb Molyb­denum42Mo Tech­netium43Tc Ruthe­nium44Ru Rho­dium45Rh Pallad­ium46Pd Argentum47Ag Cad­mium48Cd Indium49In Stannum50Sn Stibium51Sb Tellur­ium52Te Iodum53 I  Xenon54Xe
6 Cae­sium55Cs Ba­rium56Ba Lan­thanum57La   Haf­nium72Hf Tanta­lum73Ta Wolfram­ium74W Rhe­nium75Re Os­mium76Os Iridium77Ir Plat­inum78Pt Aurum79Au Hydrar­gyrum80Hg Thallium81Tl Plumbum82Pb Bise­mutum83Bi Polo­nium84Po Astatium85At Radon86Rn
7 Fran­cium87Fr Ra­dium88Ra Actin­ium89Ac   Ruther­fordium104Rf Dub­nium105Db Sea­borgium106Sg Bohr­ium107Bh Has­sium108Hs Meit­nerium109Mt Darm­stadtium110Ds Roent­genium111Rg Coper­nicium112Cn Nihon­ium113Nh Flerov­ium114Fl Moscov­ium115Mc Liver­morium116Lv Tenness­ine117Ts Oga­nesson118Og
  Cerium58Ce Praseo­dymium59Pr Neo­dymium60Nd Prome­thium61Pm Sama­rium62Sm Europ­ium63Eu Gadolin­ium64Gd Ter­bium65Tb Dyspro­sium66Dy Hol­mium67Ho Erbium68Er Thulium69Tm Ytter­bium70Yb Lute­tium71Lu  
  Thor­ium90Th Protac­tinium91Pa Ura­nium92U Neptu­nium93Np Pluto­nium94Pu Ameri­cium95Am Curium96Cm Berkel­ium97Bk Califor­nium98Cf Einstei­nium99Es Fer­mium100Fm Mende­levium101Md Nobel­ium102No Lawren­cium103Lr  

niger=solidum viridis =liquidum ruber=gas canus= inexplicata Color de numerus atomicus ostendit status materiae (in 0 °C et 1 atm)
Primordial From decay Synthetic Border shows natural occurrence of the element
Background color ostendit subcategoriis in optima flecte de metallum–metalloides–nonmetalla:
Metallum Metalloides Non-metalla Unknown
chemical
properties
Metalla alcalica Metalla alcalica terrena Lanthanida Actinida Metalla transitionis Metalla post-transitionis style="padding:0 1px; background:Formula:Element color/secondary;" | Non-metalla polyatomica style="padding:0 1px; background:Formula:Element color/secondary;" | Non-metalla diatomica Gasia nobilia

NotaeRecensere

BibliographiaRecensere

  • Atkins, P. W. 1995. The Periodic Kingdom. Novi Eboraci: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-465-07265-8.
  • Ball, Philip. 2002. The Ingredients: A Guided Tour of the Elements. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-284100-9.
  • Brown, Theodore L., H. Eugene LeMay, et Bruce E. Bursten. 2005. Chemistry: The Central Science. Ed. decima. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-109686-9.
  • Brush, Stephen G. 1996. "The reception of Mendeleev's Periodic Law in America and Britain." Isis 87: 595–628.
  • Calvo, Miguel. 2019. Construyendo la Tabla Periódica. Caesari Augustae: Prames. ISBN 978-84-8321-908-9.
  • Dartnell, Lewis. 2019. "Elemental: the periodic table at 150." The Guardian, 2 Februarii 2019.
  • Emsley, J. 2011. "The Periodic Table." In Nature's Building Blocks: An A–Z Guide to the Elements, ed. nova. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-960563-7.
  • Fluck, Ekkehard, et Klaus G. Heumann. 2012. Periodensystem der Elemente: physikalische Eigenschaften; [chemische, biologische und geologische Eigenschaften], ed. quinta. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 978-3-527-33285-4.
  • Fontani, Marco, Mariagrazia Costa, et Mary Virginia Orna. 2007. The Lost Elements: The Periodic Table's Shadow Side. Oxoniae et Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-938334-4.
  • Fricke, B., W. Greiner, et J. T. Waber. 1971. "The continuation of the periodic table up to Z = 172: The chemistry of superheavy elements." Theoretica chimica acta 21, no. 3 (September): 235-260. doi:10.1007/BF01172015
  • Greenwood, Norman N., et Alan Earnshaw. 1997. Chemistry of the Elements, ed. secunda. Oxoniae: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7506-3365-9. Vide caput 2: "Chemical Periodicity and the Periodic Table."
  • Kurzweil, P., et P. Scheipers. 2010. Chemie. Wiesbaden: Vieweg + Teubner. ISBN 978-3-8348-0341-2. Vide caput 3: "Periodensystem der Elemente."
  • Masanori Kaji, Helge Kragh, et Gábor Palló, eds. 2015. Early responses to the periodic system. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-020007-7.
  • Mazurs, E. G. 1974. Graphical Representations of the Periodic System during One Hundred Years. Alabama: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 978-0-19-960563-7.
  • Petrucci, Ralph H., William S. Harwood, et F. Geoffrey Herring. 2002. General chemistry: principles and modern applications, ed. octava. Upper Saddle River Novae Caesareae: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-014329-7. LCCN 2001032331. OCLC 46872308.
  • Pullman, Bernard. 1998. The Atom in the History of Human Thought. Conversus ab Axel Reisinger. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515040-6.
  • Pyykkö, Pekka. 2011. "A suggested periodic table up to Z ≤ 172, based on Dirac–Fock calculations on atoms and ions." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 13, no. 1 (Ianuarius): 161–68. PMID 20967377. doi:10.1039/C0CP01575J. Bibcode 2011PCCP...13..161P.
  • Rouvray, D. H., et R. B. King, eds. 2004. The Periodic Table: Into the 21st Century: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Periodic Table, part 1, Kananaskis Guest Ranch, Alberta, 14–20 July 2003. Baldock Hertfordshire: Research Studies Press. ISBN 978-0-86380-292-8.
  • Rouvray, D. H., et R. B. King, eds. 2006. The Mathematics of the Periodic Table: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Periodic Table, part 2, Kananaskis Guest Ranch, Alberta, 14–20 July 2003. Novi Eboraci: Nova Science. ISBN 978-1-59454-259-6.
  • Scerri, Eric. 2020. The Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance. Ed. secunda. Oxoniae et Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0190914363.
  • Scerri, Eric, et G. Restrepo, eds. 2018. Mendeleev to Oganesson: A Multidisciplinary Perspective on the Periodic Table: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on the Periodic Table, Cuzco, Peru 14–16 August 2012. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-86380-292-8.
  • Seubert. K., ed. Das natürliche System der chemischen Elemente: Abhandlungen von Lothar Meyer (1864–1869) und D. Mendelejeff (1869–1871). Lipsiae: Engelmann. Liber digitalizatus.
  • van Spronsen, Jan W. 1969. The Periodic System of Chemical Elements: A History of the First Hundred Years. Amstelodami, Londinii, et Novi Eboraci: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-444-40776-4.
  • Verde, M., ed. 1971. Atti del convegno Mendeleeviano: Periodicità e simmetrie nella struttura elementare della materia: First International Conference on the Periodic Table, Torino-Roma, 15–21 September 1969. Turini: Accademia delle Scienze di Torino.

Nexus interniRecensere

Nexus externiRecensere

  Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Systema Periodicum spectant.
Elementa chemica: series paginarum brevium

1 H 2 He 3 Li 4 Be 5 B 6 C 7 N 8 O 9 F 10 Ne 11 Na 12 Mg 13 Al 14 Si 15 P 16 S 17 Cl 18 Ar 19 K 20 Ca 21 Sc 22 Ti 23 V 24 Cr 25 Mn 26 Fe 27 Co 28 Ni 29 Cu 30 Zn 31 Ga 32 Ge 33 As 34 Se 35 Br 36 Kr 37 Rb 38 Sr 39 Y 40 Zr 41 Nb 42 Mo 43 Tc 44 Ru 45 Rh 46 Pd 47 Ag 48 Cd 49 In 50 Sn 51 Sb 52 Te 53 I 54 Xe 55 Cs 56 Ba 57 La 58 Ce 59 Pr 60 Nd 61 Pm 62 Sm 63 Eu 64 Gd 65 Tb 66 Dy 67 Ho 68 Er 69 Tm 70 Yb 71 Lu 72 Hf 73 Ta 74 W 75 Re 76 Os 77 Ir 78 Pt 79 Au 80 Hg 81 Tl 82 Pb 83 Bi 84 Po 85 At 86 Rn 87 Fr 88 Ra 89 Ac 90 Th 91 Pa 92 U 93 Np 94 Pu 95 Am 96 Cm 97 Bk 98 Cf 99 Es 100 Fm 101 Md 102 No 103 Lr 104 Rf 105 Db 106 Sg 107 Bh 108 Hs 109 Mt 110 Ds 111 Rg 112 Cn 113 Nh 114 Fl 115 Mc 116 Lv 117 Ts 118 Og