Indigenae Australiani sunt Australiani Aboriginales et Insulani Freti Torresiani, homines Australiae, a sese saepissime Aboriginales et Insulani Freti Torresiani una appellati, quae notio progenies comprehendit duorum magnorum gregum hominum qui in continente Australiana insulisque circumiacentibus ante colonizationem Britannicum habitabant. Investigatores disputant aetatem cum primi homines in continentem insulasque proximas advenirent. Prima reliqua certe humana in Australia inventa Homo Mungo LM3 et Domina Mungo appellantur, indigenae qui circa 50 000 annos ante praesens vivebant.[1] Recentia indicia archaeologica ex carbone et artifactis explicatis tempus 65 000 annorum ante praesens fortasse repraesentant.[2][3] Tempus per luminescentiam ascriptum habitationem in Terra Arenaci usque ad 60 000 annorum ante praesens significat.[4] Indicia incendiorum in Australia meridio-occidentali praesentiam hominum in Australia abhinc annorum 120,000 significant, sed haec res investiganda est.[5] Investigatio genetica tempus habitationis usque 80 000 annorum ante praesens significat; alia autem indicia usque ad 100 000[6] et adeo 125 000 annorum ante praesens suadent.[7]

Viri et pueri ludo gorri ludunt, 1922.

Varii greges indigenarum Australianorum multas proprietates sociales culturalesque inter se communicant, sed multae variationes manent: alicui enim societati est sua propria morum et linguarum mixtura. Hi greges in Australia hodierna porro in communitates loci divisi sunt.[8] Tempore inventionis et colonizationis Europaeae, indigenae plus quam 250 linguis distinctis utebantur, quarum ab 120 ad 145 fere in usu manent, sed solum tredecim ex iis periclitatae non putantur.[9][10] Indigenae aboriginales hodie plerumque Anglica utuntur, vocabulis autem locutionibusque aboriginalibus additis, ad linguam Anglicam indigenarum aboriginalium creandam, quae praeterea notabilia linguarum indigenarum phonologiá structuráque grammaticá reliqua exhibet. Eruditi de multitudine indigenarum Australianorum tempore perpetuae colonizationis Europaeae vehementer disceptant, et numeri inter 318 000[11] et 1 000 000[12] aestimantur, distributione multitudini hodiernae similes, pluribus indigenis in regione meridio-orientali habitantibus, plerumque secundum Flumen Murrayanum.[13] Ruina multitudinis, plerumque ob morbos post terram ab Europaeis colonizatam,[14][15] epidemiá variolae coepit, quae post tres annos colonicationis passa est. Trucidationes et bella a colonis Britannicis gesta etiam vastitatem ampliaverunt.[16][17] Num haec violentia vere genocidium iuste appellari possit est controversia multum disputata.[18]

Saltatores aboriginales anno 1981.
Primus contactus Gweagal indigenarum atque Iacobi Cook et suorum nautarum in litore Kurnell Paeninsulae Novae Cambriae Australis sic saeculo undevicensimo depictus est.
Evonne Goolagong, tennilusor Australiana.
Quattuor ultimae Tasmaniae indigenae vivae. Truganini dextra parte sedet.
Rarriwuy Hick, imaginem vexilli aboriginalis gerens, contionem ad Martin Place Sydneii die 16 Martii 2018 alloquitur.
Musicus aboriginalis clapsticks in manibus tenet.
Statua Yagan insulae Heirisson posita bellatorem gentis Noongar qui coloniae Britannicae adversatus est honorat.
Scaenae et colloquia cum Australianis post victoriam Cathy Freeman ab Australian Broadcasting Corporation emissa monstrant eius rem gestam civitatem solidavisse.

Ex 1995, vexillum Aboriginale Australianum et vexillum Insulanorum Freti Torresiani inter publica Australiae vexilla perscribuntur.

Post colonos Europaeos in Novam Cambriam Australem adventos, nonnulli indigenae Australiani interpretes et negotiatores facti sunt, quorum Bennelong notissimus ad ultimum vestimenta moresque Europaeos ascivit et ad Angliam peregrinatus est, ubi Georgio III regi introductus est. Alii, praecipue bellatores Pemulwuy, Yagan, et Windradyne, contra advenas Europaeos armis insigniter repugnaverunt.

Nexus interni

NotaeRecensere

  1. Bowler et al. 2003.
  2. Davidson et Wahlquist 2017.
  3. Wright 2017.
  4. Bird et al. 2002: 1074.
  5. Carey et al. 2018: 71–93.
  6. Reyes-Centeno et al. 2014.
  7. Bindon 1997: 173–179.
  8. Hodge 1990.
  9. ABoS 2012.
  10. AIATSIS 2014.
  11. ABoS 2002.
  12. Gough 2011.
  13. Pardoe 2006: 1–21.
  14. Ballyn 2011.
  15. Glynn 2004: 145–146.
  16. Evans et Ørsted-Jensen 2014: 28.
  17. ABC News 2017.
  18. Levene 2005: 344.

BibliographiaRecensere

GeneraliaRecensere

  • Blainey, Geoffrey. (1976) 1996. Triumph of the Nomads: A History of Aboriginal Australia. Novi Eboraci: Overlook Press. ISBN 978-0-87951-084-8.
  • Bowler, James M., H. Johnston, J. M. Olley, John R. Prescott, Richard G. Roberts, Wilfred Shawcross, et Nigel A. Spooner. 2003. "New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia." Nature 421 (6925): 837–40 (20 Februarii 2003). Bibcode:2003Natur.421..837B. doi:10.1038/nature01383. PMID 12594511.
  • Crawshaw, Ian. 2011. Australia walkabout: Reiseführer für das Australien der Aborigines und Torres Strait Islander, Sabine Muschter editor editionis Theodiscae. Kiel: Intuitiv Media. ISBN 978-3-00-029490-7.
  • Davidson, Robyn. 1998. Tracks. Londinii: Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-330-36861-2.
  • Descola, Philippe. 2010. Diversité des natures, diversité des cultures. Bayard. ISBN 978-2-227-48207-4.
  • Dreyer, Ursula. 2006. Dreaming Tracks: Spurensuche: Auf dem Weg zu interkulturellen Dialogen. Bremen: Kleio Humanities. ISBN 3-9811211-1-2.
  • Elkin, A. P. 1977. Aboriginal men of high degree: Initiation and Sorcery in the World's Oldest Tradition. Rochester Montis Viridis: Inner Traditions International. ISBN 978-0-89281-421-3.
  • Flannery, Tim. 1998. The Explorers. Melburni: Text Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8021-3719-7.
  • Glowczewski, Barbara. 1991. Du rêve à la loi chez les Aborigènes: mythes, rites et organisation sociale en Australie. Lutetiae: PUF.
  • Glowczewski, Barbara. 1996. Les rêveurs du désert: peuple Warlpiri d'Australie. Arles: Actes Sud.
  • Glowczewski, Barbara. 2004. Rêves en colère avec les Aborigènes australiens. Lutetiae: Plon.
  • Helbling, Jürg. 1997. "Die Organisation des sozialen und natürlichen Raumes bei den australischen Aborigines." In Symbolik von Ort und Raum, ed. Paul Michel, 281–303. Bernae: P. Lang. ISBN 3-906759-19-9.
  • Hodge, Robert. 1990. "Aboriginal truth and white media: Eric Michaels meets the spirit of Aboriginalism." The Australian Journal of Media & Culture 3 (3).
  • Horton, David, ed. 1994. The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, society and culture. Canberrae: Aboriginal Studies Press (Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies). ISBN 0-85575-234-3 (liber); Windows CD-Rom 1996 = ISBN 0-85575-261-0; Macintosh CD-Rom 1996 = ISBN 0-85575-278-5.
  • Isaacs, Jennifer. 2000. Bush Food: Nahrung und Pflanzenmedizin der Aborigines. Coloniae: Könnemann Verlagsgesellschaft. ISBN 3-8290-2191-7.
  • Kohen, J. L. 1986. "Prehistoric settlement in the Western Cumberland Plain: resources, environment and technology." Dissertatio PhD, Macquarie University.
  • Lawlor, Robert. 1991. Voices of the first day: Awakening in the aboriginal dreamtime. Roffae Montis Viridis: Inner Traditions International. ISBN 0-89281-355-5.
  • Leitner, Gerhard. (2006) 2010. Die Aborigines Australiens. Monaci: Beck. ISBN 3-406-50889-8. Ed. 2a: Monaci: Beck 2010. ISBN 978-3-406-50889-9.
  • Miller, G. H. 2005. "Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia and a Human Role in Megafaunal Extinction." 'Science 309: 287–90
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal Tribes of Australia: Their Terrain, Environmental Controls, Distribution, Limits and Proper Names.

De arte et musicaRecensere

De historiaRecensere

  • Darian-Smith, Kate, et Juliane Lochner. 2012. "Indigenes Australien: Von der britischen Besiedelung bis zur Gegenwart." In: Länderbericht Australien, ed. Bettina Biedermann et Heribert Dieter, 93–126. H. Schriftenreihe, 1275. Bonnae: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung BpB. ISBN 978-3-8389-0175-6.
  • Hughes, Robert. 2003. The Fatal Shore: A History of the Transportation of Convicts to Australia, 1787-1868. Londinii: Vintage. ISBN 0-099-45915-9.
  • Isaacs, Jennifer. 2005. Australian Dreaming: 40,000 Years of Aboriginal History. ISBN 1741102588.
  • Levene, Mark. 2005. Genocide in the Age of the Nation State: The rise of the West and the coming of genocide. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-057-4.
  • Mulvaney, D. J., et J. P. White, eds. 1987. Australians to 1788. Sydneiae: Fairfax, Syme and Weldon. ISBN 0949288098, ISBN 0949288187, ISBN 0949288101, ISBN 0949288144.
  • Phillip, A. 1789. The voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay. Londinii.

De societate et circumiectisRecensere

  • Bliege Bird, R., et al. 2008. "The 'Fire Stick Farming' Hypothesis: Australian Aboriginal Foraging Strategies, Biodiversity and Anthropogenic Fire Mosaics." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 14796–801.
  • Horton, D. 1982. "The burning question: Aborigines, fire and Australian ecosystems." Mankind 13 (3): 237–51.
  • Jones, R. 1969. "Fire-stick Farming." Australian Natural History 16: 224–28.
  • Kershaw, P. 1986. "The last two glacial-interglacial cycles from Northeastern Australia: implications for climatic change and Aboriginal burning." Nature 322: 47–49.
  • Kimber, R. 1983. "Black Lightning: Aborigines and fire in Central Australia and the Western Desert." Archaeology in Oceania 18 (1): 38–45.
  • Nicholson, P. H. 1981. "Fire and the Australian Aborigine—an enigma." In Fire and the Australian Biota, ed. A. M. Gill, R. H. Groves, et I. R. Noble. Canberrae: Australian Academy of Sciences.
  • Pyne, S. J. 1991. Burning Bush: A fire history of Australia. Novi Eboraci: Henry Holt and Company.

Nexus externiRecensere

  Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad indigenas Australianos spectant.
  Vicicitatio habet citationes quae ad indigenas Australianos spectant.