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Locus caeruleus (TA: 14.1.05.436) est nucleus structura cerebri in ponte trunci encephali locata. Significatio loci caerulei primaria est dimissio fibrarum nervosarum ad numerosas cerebri regiones noradrenalino neurotransmissore affectas[1]. Una cum aliis nucleis trunci encephali, locus caeruleus est pars systematis excitantis reticularis ascendentis, ita expergiscendi cursus gubernans[2]. Alia munera loci caerulei ad res sensorias et perceptionis spectant[3].

Locus caeruleus in trunco encephali situs, ex quo noradrenergicas fibras diversas regiones corticum et cerebelli et medullae spinalis dimittit.

Diversis in morbis degeneratio (ut morbo Parkinsoniano) vel dysfunctio viarum efferentium (ut CHAD) observantur.

ContextusRecensere

Significatio loci caerulei in contextu cum systemate excitante reticulari ascendente comprehendum est.

Systema excitans reticulare ascendensRecensere

  Commentatio principalis: Systema excitans reticulare ascendens

Divisio inter diem et noctem adaptionem animalium requirit. Pro statibus et vigilantibus et dormientibus commutationes in cerebro pernecesse sunt, quas systema excitans reticulare ascendens neurotransmissorum diversorum ope expedit: dopaminum, noradrenalinum, serotoninum, histaminum, acetylcholinum, acidum glutamicum (glutamatum). Inter illos, noradrenalinum ex fibris nervosis a nucleis noradrenergicis trunci encephali, inter ea quoque a loco caeruleo, etiam dimissum ad attentionem excitandum[4] est. Locus caeruleus systemati noradrenergico ascribitur.

Systema noradrenergicumRecensere

Plerisque primatibus septem gregres somatum noradrenergicorum sunt, secundum Dahlström et Fuxe A1-A7 nominata[5]. Loco caeruleo (A6) maius momentum habet.

Anatomia loci caeruleiRecensere

 
Imago microscopia loci caerulei. Structura supra et dextra, sinistre iuxta caerulae semilunae, situata est. Sinistrorsum media cerebri.

Locus caeruleus in trunco cerebri situs est. Olim locum caeruleum dupliciter (locos caeruleos) ita utro latere esse putabatur. Hodie saepe locus caeruleus structura singularis concipitur, tamen hoc quoque disputatum est. Numerus neuronorum improviso parvus videtur: circiter ne quidem 15 000 - 40 000 multitudinis in hominibus[6][7]. Ex loco caeruleo fibrae nervosae in diversas partes cerebri procedunt: in cortices, in cerebellum, in medullam spinalem.

Locus caeruleus afferentes fibras a systemate nociceptivum medullae spinalis recipit[8].

EditaRecensere

Fibrae nervales efferentes ab loco caeruleo in regiones has currunt:

Fibrae efferentes in corticem cerebri (Neurona caeruleocorticalia)Recensere

Edita ab loci caerulei parte inferiore oriuntur. Intra nucleum neurona caeruleocorticalia corticis frontalis anterius et inferius, corticis sensoriomotorius in medio et inferius, corticis occipitalis posterius et inferius locata sunt. Pleraeque fibrae ipsilateraliter (95%) in corticem currunt, quo solum cortices frontales indita ab utroque latere loci caerulei accipiunt[10].

PhysiologiaRecensere

Neurotransmissor synapsium neuronorum loci caerulei noradrenalinum est. Locus caeruleus momentum transitus inter somnum et vigilantiam habet[11]. Neurona ex loco caeruleo orientia vigilantia ineunte actionem extensam ostendunt. Propositum est, ut loci caerulei terminales noradrenalini neurotransmissoris ope imprimis receptoria α1 instigent[12].

Stimulatio loci caerulei in parte basale telencephali mutationes EEG derivationibus frontalibus, frequentiae eius incremento et amplitudinis deminutione, perficit[13].

Noradrenalinum neurotransmissor et dopamini beta hydroxylasis (DBH)Recensere

Noradrenalinum (vel norepinephrinum) neurotransmissor synapsium neuronorum loci caerulei est. Synthesis ab dopamino per enzymum dopamini beta hydroxylasem (DBH)[14] fit.

Vigilantia et systema nervosum autonomicumRecensere

  Commentatio principalis: Systema nervosum autonomicum

Duo ex operibus suis simul vigilantiam instituendi et systema nervosum autonomicum instigandi sunt[15].

SomnusRecensere

  Commentatio principalis: Somnus

Locus caeruleus cum functione somni motuum ocularium rapidorum (somni MOR) nexus est. Hic neuronorum EX noradrenergicorum initium est, quod est haec neurona in noctis cursu EX somnum MOR ter vel quater "exstinguere", terminare solent[16].

Morbus et locus caeruleusRecensere

In morbo Parkinsoniano, degeneratio loci caerulei etiam observatur[17]. Aggregatio enim proteini alpha-synucleini in cellulis loci caeruleus excidium profundum cellularum efficit. Videtur, ut etiam in morbis neurodegenerativis cum liberatione proteini tau nucleus caeruleus affectus appareat[18].

In CHAD, modus physiologicus mutatus apparet. In nucleo sano actiones potentiales phasicae sunt, at in CHAD tonica[19].

Nonnullis autismo infantibus mores aggravescentes una cum febre sunt. Putatur, ut nexus, incremento ineunte mutatus, inter locum caeruleum et retia neuronorum mores magis conspicue facti sint[20].

Historia scientificaRecensere

Anno 1786 Felix Vicq d’Azyr (1748—1794) primum locum caeruleum descripsit. In opere suo anni 1812, De penitiori structura cerebri hominis et brutorum, Wenzel fratres notionem "loci caerulei" utroque latere trunco encephali introduxerunt.

NotaeRecensere

  1. Chandler D. J., Jensen P., et al. (Oct 2019). "Redefining Noradrenergic Neuromodulation of Behavior: Impacts of a Modular Locus Coeruleus Architecture". The journal of neuroscience 39 (42): 8239-49 
  2. Iwańczuk W., Guźniczak P. (2015). "Neurophysiological foundations of sleep, arousal, awareness and consciousness phenomena. Part 1". Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 47 (2): 162-7 
  3. McBurney-Lin J., Lu J., et al. (Oct 2019). "Locus coeruleus-norepinephrine modulation of sensory processing and perception: A focused review". Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews 105: 190-9 
  4. Vazey E. M., Moorman D. E., Aston-Jones G. (2018). "Phasic locus coeruleus activity regulates cortical encoding of salience information". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A: doi: 10.1073/pnas.1803716115 
  5. Dahlström A., Fuxe K. (1964). "Localization of monoamines in the lower brain stem". Experientia 20 (7): 398-9 
  6. Sara S. J., Bouret S. (2012). "Orienting and reorienting: the locus coeruleus mediates cognition through arousal". Neuron 76 (1): 130-41 
  7. Foote S. L., Bloom F. E., Aston-Jones G. (Iul 1983). "Nucleus locus ceruleus: new evidence of anatomical and physiological specificity". Physiological reviews 63 (3): 844-914 
  8. Neves R. M., van Keulen S., Yang M., Logothetis N. K., Eschenko O. (2018). "Locus coeruleus phasic discharge is essential for stimulus-induced gamma oscillations in the prefrontal cortex". J Neurophysiol 119 (3): 904-20 
  9. Oleskevich S., Descarries L., Lacaille J. C. (Nov 1989). "Quantified distribution of the noradrenaline innervation in the hippocampus of adult rat". The journal of neuroscience 9 (11): 3803-15 
  10. Waterhouse B. D., Lin C. S., et al. (Iul 1983). "The distribution of neocortical projection neurons in the locus coeruleus". The journal of comparative neurology 217 (4): 418-31 
  11. Mir F. A., Jha S. K. (Feb 2021). "Locus ceruleus regulates sensory encoding by neurons and networks in waking animals". Neuroscience bulletin .
  12. McCormick D. A., Pape H. C. (December 1990). "Noradrenergic and serotonergic modulation of a hyperpolarization-activated cation current in thalamic relay neurones". The journal of physiology 431: 319-42 .
  13. Berridge C. W., Foote S. L. (1991). "Effects of locus coeruleus activation on electroencephalographic activity in neocortex and hippocampus". The journal of neuroscience 11 (10): 3135-45 .
  14. Gonzalez-Lopez E., Vrana K. E. (Ian 2020). "Dopamine beta-hydroxylase and its genetic variants in human health and disease". Journal of neurochemistry 152 (2): 157-81 
  15. Samuels E. R., Szabadi E. (Sep 2020). "Functional neuroanatomy of the noradrenergic locus coeruleus: its roles in the regulation of arousal and autonomic function part I: principles of functional organisation". Current neuropharmacology 6 (3): 235-53 
  16. Pal D., Mallick B. N. (Iun 2007). "Neural mechanism of rapid eye movement sleep generation with reference to REM-OFF neurons in locus coeruleus". The Indian journal of medical research 125 (6): 721-39 
  17. Butkovich L. M., Houser M. C., Tansey M. G. (2018). "α-Synuclein and Noradrenergic Modulation of Immune Cells in Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis". Front Neurosci 12: 262 
  18. Ohm D. T., Peterson C., et al. (Nov 2020). "Degeneration of the locus coeruleus is a common feature of tauopathies and distinct from TDP-43 proteinopathies in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum". Acta neuropathologica 140 (5): 675-93 .
  19. Devilbiss D. M., Berridge C. W. (Dec 2006). "Low-dose methylphenidate actions on tonic and phasic locus coeruleus discharge". The journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 319 (3): 1327-35 .
  20. Mehler M. F., Purpura D. P. (Mar 2009). "Autism, fever, epigenetics and the locus coeruleus". Brain research reviews 59 (2): 388-92 

BibliographiaRecensere

Nexus interni