Enzymum (Graece ἔνζυμον) est molecula proteini, quae reactionem chemicam et biologicam catalyzat activando aut reprimendo. Enzyma, cum proteina sunt (nam nonnumquam ARN quoque enzymatica opera funguntur et ribozyma appellantur), ex acidis aminicis componuntur. Funguntur ut sequitur: substratum (eductum / educta) + enzymum → complexus enzymi et substrati → producta + enzymum.

Enzymum nomine purino-nucleoside-phosphorylasis (PNP)

De consuetudine enzymi nomen functionem suam vel substratum suum ac cofactorem describit.

Reactio chemica recensere

  Conferatur pagina principalis Reactio chemica.

Omnibus organismis perncesse sunt substantiae chemiciae, quae eis structura, functio, vita dant. Imprimis vitae virtutes mutationibus perpetuis pendent. Tamen tales mutationes gubernationes requirunt, in parte per gubernationem celeritatem reactionum chemicorum.

Catalysis recensere

  Conferatur pagina principalis Catalysis.

Enzymorum functio cum catalysis notione coniuncta videtur. Catalysis decursum reactionis chemicae celeritate aucta currere significat. Enyzum ipsum, hic catalysta dictum in reactione neque mutatur neque consumitur. Eo modo quodque enzymum catalysis multorum reactionum suorum perficere solet.

Aminoacida, proteina, enzyma recensere

Unitates enzymorum basales sunt aminoacida, quorum in organismis vivis viginti nota sunt. Gubernatione ADN aminoacida ad catenas coniunguntur, ita proteina formantes. Haec proteina, oneris electricis singularum aminoacidorum ordinem specialem accipiunt. Si ordo haec functionem certam ostendat, quae celeritatem aliarum reactionum chemicarum augeat, proteinum enzymum nominatur.

Nominum conventiones recensere

Saepe enzymi nomen de substrato eius vel reactione catalysata derivatur, ut lactasis (catalysis reactionis lactosi (substrati ex saccaridis galactoso et glucoso composito) disccessionis). Ab anno 1955 Internationalis Unio Biochemiae Molecularisque Biologiae (IUBMB) nomenclatura enzymorum numeris EC (enzymorum commissionis) excogitabat amplificabatque. Exempla sunt:

Bibliographia recensere

Etymologia et historia recensere

Structura et mechanismus recensere

  • Fersht, Alan (1999). Structure and mechanism in protein science: a guide to enzyme catalysis and protein folding. Franciscopoli: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-3268-8 
  • Walsh C (1979). Enzymatic reaction mechanisms. Francisciopoli: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0070-0 
  • Alex Gutteridge, Janet M Thornton (2005). "Understanding Nature's catalytic toolkit", Trends in Biochemical Scienceː 622-9 Pubmed
  • Page, M. I., et Williams, A., eds. 1987. Enzyme Mechanisms. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 0851869475.
  • Bugg, T. Introduction to Enzyme and Coenzyme Chemistry. (2nd edition), Blackwell Publishing Limited, 2004. ISBN 1405114525.
  • Dagmar Ringe et Gregory Petsko (2008), "How Enzymes Work", Scienceː 1428-9 [1]
  • Warshel, A. Computer Modeling of Chemical Reactions in enzymes and Solutions. John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1991. ISBN 0471184403.

Thermodynamica recensere

Cinetica et inhibitio recensere

  • Baynes, John W. 2005. Medical Biochemistry. Ed. 2a. Elsevier-Mosby. ISBN 0723433410, p. 57.
  • Cornish-Bowden, Athel. 2004. Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics. (3rd edition), Portland Press. ISBN 1-85578-158-1.
  • Segel Irwin H. 1993. Enzyme Kinetics: Behavior and Analysis of Rapid Equilibrium and Steady-State Enzyme Systems. Ed. nova., Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 0471303097.

Functio et regulatio enzymorum recensere

Nomenclatura enzymorum recensere

  • Enzyme Nomenclature, Recommendations for enzyme names from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
  • Koshland, D. The Enzymes, v. I, ch. 7. Acad. Press, Novi Eboraci, 1959.

Applicationes fabricales recensere