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SARS-CoV-2 without background.png

Ordo : Nidovirales 
Subordo : Cornidovirineae 
Familia : Coronaviridae 
Subfamilia : Orthocoronavirinae 
Genus : Betacoronavirus 
Subgenus : Sarbecovirus 
Species : SARS-CoV-2 
   

SARS-CoV-2[1] aut 2019-nCoV, anni 2019 coronavirus novum sive coronarium virus novum sive coronarium virus syndromatis respiratorii acuti gravis 2 est virus biologicum, unum ex duobus sarbecoviris generis Betacoronavirorum,[2] materia genetica ARN munitum atque monocatenarium sensu positivo ((+)ssRNA), ex fere 29 900 nucleotidis (29.9 kB) compositum.

Adhuc duo typi SARS-CoV-2, L et S nominati, noti sunt.

Virus anno 2019 Wuhan in urbe Sinica, climate subtropico humido, primo agnotum est[3]; ibi multi homines pneumonia laborantes observati sunt. Putatur novum coronavirus 2019-nCoV, ut SARS-CoV originis zoonoticae esse[4]. Qua de causa morbus respiratorius designatur zoonosis nomine COVID-19 (morbus coronaviri anno 2019 agnotum, interdum vulgo pneumonia Wuhaniensis).

Morbus hic, ex Sinis egressus, tribus mensibus (mensibus Decembri anni 2019 et Ianuario Februarioque anni 2020) se in multas orbis terrarum civitates propagabat.

Natura novi coronaviriRecensere

AspectusRecensere

 
Nomen coronavirorum de aspectu coronae simili, sub microscopio electronico visum, emanavit.
 
Structura Coronoviri - Intra virus invenitur genoma ex ARN compositum, quod cinctum est globuliformi capsida; illae sunt duo genera proteinorum, E et M. In superficie capsidae locatae sunt spinae insignes, quae glycoproteina sunt.

Viro capsida est, ut omnibus coronaviris, sub microscopio electronico formae coronae, de qua virus nomen suum emanavit.

Diameter circiter 50–200 nm (cf. Influenza A virus: 80-120 nm) metitur.

Intra virus invenitur genoma ex ARN compositum, quod cinctum est globuliformi capsida; illae sunt duo genera proteinorum, E et M. Superficie eius permultae spinae locatae sunt. Licet, ut non solum virus SARS-CoV[5], sed etiam SARS-CoV-2 spinis his[6] enzymum angiotensinum convertens 2 attingeret.

TaxinomiaRecensere

In virologia, ut influenza A virus, phylo negarnaviricotorum attributum est. Quamquam adhuc novum hoc coronavirus in taxinomia ICTV officiali (2018b) non inclusum est, tamen putatur se sarbecoviris attribuendum esse sub Betacoronaviris in ordine Nidoviralium. SARS-CoV-2 est virus biologicum cum ARN substantia genetica.

Virus monocatenarium et sensu positivoRecensere

Coronovirus Wuhaniense est virus ARN monocatenarium sensu positivo, quod significat:

  • Materia genetica eius ex acido ribonucleico (ARN) constat,
  • catenam simplicem (Anglice: single-stranded, ss), non duplicem format,
  • intra cellulam alienam directe (sensu positivo (+), (5'-ad-3') transferri potest.

GenomaRecensere

 
Genoma SARS-CoV-2 - Visibiles sunt loci genetici proteinorum E et M. S codicem spinarum, glycoproteini spinosi S, indicat.

Genoma viri SARS-CoV-2 illo viri SARS-CoV valde simile videtur: circiter 79% codicis genetici sunt eiusdem ordinis[7]. Similitudo genomati unius vespertilionis betacoronavirorum etiam 96.3% aestimata est[8][9]. Pro eo quidam originem pandemiae 2020 ex vespertilionibus esse putant. Videntur mutationes geneticae betacoronaviri vespertilionis (at non SARS-CoV) ad glycoproteinum spinas externas formantes velut ad proteinum capsidae spectare[10].

Structura principalis virorum SARS et SARS-CoV-2Recensere

Genomati virorum SARS partes insunt[11] diversae regiones ORF (Anglice: open reading frames, margines lectoriae apertae); velut proteina structurae, vocitantur S, E, M, N; in SARS-CoV-2:

M. L. A. Litt. Productum Genum Numerus
aminoacidorum
Notae Fons
ORF1a 4 405 Uniprot[12]
ORF1b Uniprot[13]
ORF2 S Spinae /
protuberantiae
1 282
ORF3a proteina accessoria 275
ORF3b proteinum novum [14]
ORF4 E proteinum E
Capsida
75
ORF5 M proteinum M 222
ORF6 proteina accessoria 61
ORF7a 121
ORF7b
ORF8 121
ORF9b 419
ORF10 N Nucleocapsidum
Summa 9 860 29 891 nucleotida

Genum haemagglutinini esterasis, ut in alphacoronaviris (αCoV), in SARS-CoV-2 abest.

Effectus in organisma in gradu moleculari habitusRecensere

Receptorium virorum et SARS-CoV et SARS-CoV-2 videtur enzymum angiotensinum convertens 2[15], quod in variis organis locatum est, imprimis in cellulis alveolaribus pulmonum velut enterocytis intestini tenuis[16], paulo minus in aliis partibus organismi, ut in tractu gastrointestinali, renibus, cute.

Vitae tempus extra organismumRecensere

Uniformis informatio temporis vitae novi coronaviri potuit elaborari, valores scilicet adhuc divulgati ab horis paucis ad dies multos variant, sane de variis generis superficierum pendentes:

Morbi cum viro coniunctiRecensere

In natura viri SARS-CoV in vespertilionibus versantur; cetera vero coronavirorum etiam in avibus[18]. Virus SARS-CoV-2 est unum ex septem coronaviris (OC43, HKU1, NL63, 229E, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV), quod homines afficere potest[19]. Anno 2020 permultae contagiones causa fuerunt pandemiae, cuius morbi nomen COVID-19 iussum est.

Habitationes naturalesRecensere

 
Rhinolophus rouxii ex Rhinolophidis, habitatio naturalis viri SARS-CoV-2.

Nondum in homines morbo propagato, hoc virus in vespertilionibus versabatur.

Iam anno 2015 in vespertilionibus diversa quinque genomata virorum SARS investigabantur. Hodie coniunctio inter vira SARS vespertilionum et homines putatur: post mutationes minores et glycoproteini S spinarum et capsidae viri in homines diffuderunt[20].

Vespertiliones et transmissio virorumRecensere

  Commentatio principalis: Vespertilio

Vespertiliones chiropteris attribuuntur. Post rodentia chiropteris sunt genera plus quam mille, secunda omnium mammalium. Animalia haec in transmissione plus quam sexaginta virorum vincta sunt. Suspicatur inter chiroptera quibusdam speciebus facultatem esse certa vira disseminandi vel transmittendi - ut quaedam ex coronaviridis, rhabdoviridis, paramyxoviridis, ebolaviris[21].

COVID-19Recensere

  Commentatio principalis: COVID-19

Periodus incubationisRecensere

Tempus inter contagionem et symptomata prima plerumque dies quinque (2-14), rarius ad viginti quattuor dies[22] complectitur.

SymptomataRecensere

Primum febris, myalgiae (dolores musculorum), et tussis sicca oriuntur, communiter cum generali corporis fatigatione vel lassitudine, ex quo pneumonia inflammatio pulmonum vel partium illorum observari potest.

HistoriaRecensere

Iam mense Decembris anni 2019 in China quidam homines pneumonias contraxerunt. Suspicatae origines sunt nundinae conchyliorum urbe Wuhan[19]. Tempore brevi contagiones toto in orbe terrarum porrexerunt, proinde die 11 Martii 2020 Ordo mundi sanitarius pandemiam declaravit.

NotaeRecensere

  1. Gorbalenya A. E. (2020). "Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus – The species and its viruses, a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group". bioRxiv: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.07.937862 
  2. Historia taxonomiarum,
  3. Hui D. S., I Azhar E., Madani T. A., Ntoumi F., Kock R., Dar O., Ippolito G., Mchugh T. D., Memish Z. A., Drosten C., Zumla A., Petersen E. (Ian 2020). "The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health - The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China". International journal of infectious diseases 91: 264-6 
  4. Wu J. T., Leung K., Leung G. M. (Ian 2020). "Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study". Lancet: S0140-6736(20)30260-9 
  5. Li W., Moore M. J., Vasilieva N., Sui J., Wong S. K., Berne M. A., Somasundaran M., Sullivan J. L., Luzuriaga K., Greenough T. C., Choe H., Farzan M. (Nov 2003). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus". Nature 426 (6965): 450-4 
  6. Xu X., Chen P., Wang J., Feng J., Zhou H., Li X., Zhong W., Hao P. (Mar 2020). "Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission". Science China. Life sciences. 63 (3): 457-60 
  7. Lu R., Zhao X., Li J., Niu P., Yang B., Wu H., Wang W., Song H., Huang B., Zhu N., et al. (Feb 2020). "Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding". Lancet 395 (10224): 565-74 
  8. Paraskevis D., Kostaki E. G., Magiorkinis G., Panayiotakopoulos G., Sourvinos G., Tsiodras S. (Apr 2020). "Full-genome evolutionary analysis of the novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) rejects the hypothesis of emergence as a result of a recent recombination event". Infection, genetics and evolution: 10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104212 
  9. Zhou P., Yang X. L., Wang X. G., Hu B., Zhang L., Zhang W., Si H. R., Zhu Y., Li B., et al. (Mar 2020). "A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin". Nature 579 (7798): 270-3 
  10. Benvenuto D., Giovanetti M., Ciccozzi A., Spoto S., Angeletti S., Ciccozzi M. (Apr 2020). "The 2019-new coronavirus epidemic: Evidence for virus evolution". Journal of medical virology 92 (4): 455-9 
  11. Qin E., Zhu Q., Yu M., Fan B., Chang G., Si B., Yang B., Peng W., Jiang T., et al. (2003). "A complete sequence and comparative analysis of a SARS-associated virus (Isolate BJ01)". Chinese science bulletin 48 (10): 941-8 
  12. Uniporot de A7J8L3
  13. Uniprot de A0A1S6L957
  14. Chan J. F., Kok K. H., Zhu Z., Chu H., To K. K., Yuan S., Yuen K. Y. (Ian 2020). "Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan". Emerging microbes & infections 9 (1): 221-36 
  15. Cao Y., Li L., Feng Z., Wan S., Huang P., Sun X., Wen F., Huang X., Ning G., Wang W. (Feb 2020). "Comparative genetic analysis of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) receptor ACE2 in different populations". Cell Discov. 11: 10.1038/s41421-020-0147-1 
  16. Hamming I., Timens W., Bulthuis M. L., Lely A. T., Navis G., van Goor H. (Iun 2004). "Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis". Journal of pathology 203 (2): 631-7 
  17. van Doremalen N., Bushmaker T., et al. (2020 https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.09.20033217v1.full.pdf).+Aerosol and surface stability of HCoV-19 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to SARS-CoV-1 
  18. Chan J. F., To K. K., Tse H., Jin D. Y., Yuen K. Y. (Oct 2013). "Interspecies transmission and emergence of novel viruses: lessons from bats and birds". Trends in microbiology 21 (10): 544-55 
  19. 19.0 19.1 Zhu N., Zhang D., Wang W., Li X., Yang B., Song J., Zhao X., Huang B., Shi W., et al. (Feb 2020). "A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019". New England Journal of Medicine 382 (8): 727-33 
  20. Benvenuto D., Giovanetti M., Ciccozzi A., Spoto S., Angeletti S., Ciccozzi M. (Apr 2020). "The 2019-new coronavirus epidemic: Evidence for virus evolution". Journal of medical virology 92 (4): 455-9 
  21. Rodhain F. (Oct 2015). "(Bats and Viruses: complex relationships)". Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique 108 (4): 272-89  (Francogallice)
  22. Bai Y., Yao L., Wei T., Tian F., Jin D. Y., Chen L., Wang M. (Feb 2020). "Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19". JAMA: 10.1001/jama.2020.2565 

Nexus interni

Nexus externiRecensere

  Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad SARS-CoV-2 spectant.
  Vide "SARS-CoV-2" apud Vicispecies.
  Situs scientifici:  • NCBI
  Haec stipula ad biologiam spectat. Amplifica, si potes!