Benny Trapp Vipera berus.jpg

Classis : Reptilia 
Ordo : Squamata 
Subordo : Serpentes 
Familia : Viperidae 
Subfamilia : Viperinae 
Genus : Vipera 
Species : Vipera berus 
(Linnaeus, 1758)
   
Conservationis status
Synonyma
Formula:Hidden begin
  • [Coluber] berus Linnaeus, 1758
  • [Coluber] Chersea Linnaeus, 1758
  • Coluber prester Linnaeus, 1761
  • Coluber vipera Anglorum Laurenti, 1768
  • Coluber Melanis Pallas, 1771
  • Coluber Scytha Pallas, 1773
  • C[oluber]. Scytha Bonnaterre, 1790
  • Vipera melanis Sonnini & Latreille, 1801
  • Vipera berus Daudin, 1803
  • Vipera chersea — Daudin, 1803
  • Vipera prester — Daudin, 1803
  • [Coluber] Caeruleus Sheppard, 1804
  • Vipera communis Leach, 1817
  • Coluber chersea var. marasso Pollini, 1818
  • [Pelias] berus Merrem, 1820
  • [Vipera] marasso — Sette, 1821
  • Vipera limnaea Bendiscioli, 1826
  • Vipera trilamina Millet, 1828
  • [Pelias] Chersea Wagler, 1830
  • Vipera torva Lenz, 1832
  • Pelias dorsalis Gray, 1842
  • V[ipera]. Prester var. gagatina Freyer, 1842
  • Echidnoides trilamina Mauduyt, 1844
  • Vipera Pelias Soubeiran, 1855
  • Pelias berus var. Prester Günther, 1858
  • Pelias berus var. Chersea — Günther, 1858
  • P[elias berus]. Var. dorsalis Cope, 1860
  • P[elias berus]. Var. niger Cope, 1860
  • V[ipera]. (Pelias) berus Jan, 1863
  • V[ipera]. (Pelias) berus var. prester
    — Jan, 1863
  • V[ipera]. (Pelias) berus var. lymnaea
    — Jan, 1863
  • Pelias Chersea — Erber, 1863
  • Pelias berus — Erber, 1863
  • Vipera berus var. prester
    — Jan & Sordelli, 1874
  • Vipera berus [berus] Boettger, 1889
  • [Vipera berus] var. montana Méhelÿ, 1893
  • Vipera berus Boulenger, 1896
  • Pelias berus lugubris Kashehenko, 1902
  • Vipera berus pelias Chabanaud, 1923
  • [Vipera (Pelias) berus] forma brunneomarcata A.F. Reuss, 1923
  • [Vipera (Pelias) berus] forma luteoalba A. F. Reuss, 1923
  • [Vipera (Pelias) berus] forma ochracea asymmetrica A. F. Reuss, 1923
  • [Vipera (Pelias) berus] rudolphi-marchica A. F. Reuss, 1924
  • [Vipera (Pelias) berus] forma bilineata A. F. Reuss, 1924
  • Vipera (Pelias) berus forma
    chersea-splendens A. F. Reuss, 1925
  • Vipera (Pelias) berus forma
    ochracea-splendens A. F. Reuss, 1925
  • Vipera (Pelias) berus forma rutila
    A. F. Reuss, 1925
  • Vipera (Pelias) berus forma punctata
    A. F. Reuss, 1925
  • Coluber sachalinensis continentalis Nikolski, 1927
  • P[elias]. sudetica A. F. Reuss, 1927
    (nomen nudum)
  • V[ipera]. berus marchici A. F. Reuss, 1927
  • Vipera berus rudolphi A. F. Reuss, 1927
    (nomen nudum)
  • Vipera berus berus
    Mertens & L. Müller, 1928
  • [Pelias] elberfeldi A. F. Reuss, 1929
  • Pelias rudolphi — A. F. Reuss, 1930
  • Pelias schöttleri A. F. Reuss, 1930
  • P[elias]. tyrolensis A. F. Reuss, 1930
  • Pelias schreiberi A. F. Reuss, 1930
  • Pelias flavescens A. F. Reuss, 1930
    (nomen nudum)
  • Pelias subalpina A. F. Reuss, 1930
    (nomen nudum)
  • Pelias neglecta A. F. Reuss, 1932
  • Vipera berus sphagnosa Krassawzef, 1932
  • Pelias occidentalis A. F. Reuss, 1933
  • Pelias occidentalis oldesloensis
    A. F. Reuss, 1933 (nomen nudum)
  • Pelias occidentalis orbensis
    A. F. Reuss, 1933 (nomen nudum)
  • Pelias sudetica forma steinii
    A.F. Reuss, 1935 (nomen nudum)
  • Vipera marchici — A. F. Reuss, 1935
  • Pelias sudetica steinii forma emarcata A. F. Reuss, 1937 (nomen illegitimum)
  • Vipera (Vipera) berus berus Obst, 1983
  • Vipera berus forma brunneomarcata
    Golay et al., 1993
  • Vipera berus forma
    ochracea-asymmetrica — Golay et al., 1993
  • Vipera berus forma luteoalba
    — Golay et al., 1993
  • Pelias schoettleri — Golay et al., 1993
  • Coluber coeruleus — Golay et al., 1993
  • Vipera berus — Golay et al., 1993
Territorium
Vipera berus distribution.svg

Vipera berus (vulgo fortasse coluber communis Europaeus[2] et vipera communis Europaeus,[3]) est anguis venenosus cuius distributio geographica latissime extenditur et qui per plurimum Europae Occidentalis etiam usque ad Asiam Orientalem inveni potest.[4] Vipera est res gentiliciorum morum in Britannia aliisque civitatibus Europaeis.[5] Non periculosus habetur,[2] quia hostilis non est, et mordet solum vehementer irritatus, sub pede contundus, vel manu sublatus. Eius morsus molestissimus sed raro letalis est.[6] Nomen berus, exemplum Latinae Novae, quendam anguem olim attingebat, fortasse Natricem natricem.[7]

Shows the front parts of two common adders. One snake has the normal colour while the other has melanistic colour/pattern form. The head of the normal snake is enclosed in a half-coil of the melanistic form.
Usitatum et melanisticum coloris exemplaria.
An adult female adder found basking in the sun by Loch Shin, Sutherland in Scotland. She preferred to pose for a photograph rather than slither away.
Vipera berus femina.
A slender adder lies in a half circle on the bare soil which has a few dried leaves. The black zig-zag pattern along the dorsal spine of the snake contrasts against the white borders forming a pattern resembling the teeth of an open zip.
Vipera berus mas.
Closeup of snake coils with head resting on coil looking front and left. The gray dorsal scales on the thick coils are clearly seen as having prominent keels.
Vipera berus, squama lineatas in regione dorsali monstrans.

Vipera berus in variis circumiectis naturalibus invenitur, et multiplicitas habitationis maximi momenti in eius moribus est. Parvis mammalibus, avibus, lacertis, amphibiis, et aliquando araneis, vermibus, insectisque vescitur. Sicut alii viperae, ovoviviparus est. Feminae semel in biennio vel triennio iuvenes gignunt, fetibus plerumque ab aestate exacta ad autumnum ineuntem in hemisphaerio septentrionali natis. Fetus magnitudine a tribus ad viginti variant, et iuvenes cum matre aliquot dies manent. Adulti (cum cauda) a 60 ad 90 centimetra longi sunt, et massam a 50 ad 180 grammatum habent. Tres subspecies agnoscuntur, inter quas Vipera berus berus, subspecies nominata.[8] Hic anguis in periculum addictus non habetur, quamquam in nonnullis civitatibus legitime protegitur.

NotaeRecensere

  1. IUCN (vide situs scientificos).
  2. 2.0 2.1 Mallow D., Ludwig D., Nilson G.. (2003). True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Malabar Floridae: Krieger Publishing Company. ISBN 0-89464-877-2.
  3. Stidworthy J. (1974), Snakes of the World (Novi Eboraci: Grosset & Dunlap Inc.). ISBN 0-448-11856-4.
  4. McDiarmid, Campbell, et Touré 1999.
  5. "Everyday Adders – the Adder in Folklore". The Herpetological Conservation Trust .
  6. Warrell D. A. (2005). "Treatment of bites by adders and exotic venomous snakes". British Medical Journal 331 (7527): 1244–1247 .
  7. Gotch, A. F. (1986), Reptiles: Their Latin Names Explained (Poole Britanniarum Regni: Blandford Press). ISBN 0-7137-1704-1.
  8. "Vipera berus". apud Integrated Taxonomic Information System .

BibliographiaRecensere

  • Ananjeva, N. B., L. J. Borkin, Ilya Darevsky, et Nikolaï Orlov. 1998. [Amphibia et Reptilia: Encyclopedia Naturae Russiae]. Moscuae: ABF. (Russice).
  • Arnold, E. Nicholas, et J. A. Burton. 1978. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Britain and Europe. Londinii: Collins. ISBN 0-00-219318-3.
  • Boulenger, George Albert. 1896. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume III., Containing the . . . Viperidæ. Londinii: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History).
  • Bruno, Silvio. 1985. Le vipere d'Italia e d'Europa. Bononiae: Edagricole. ISBN 8820625008.
  • Goin, Coleman Jett,O. B. Goin, et G. R. Zug. 1978. Introduction to Herpetology. Ed. tertia. Franciscopoli: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0020-4.
  • Gruber, Ulrich. 1989. Die Schlangen Europas und rund ums Mittelmeer. Stutgardiae: Franckh'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. ISBN 3-440-05753-4.
  • Jan, Giorgio, et Ferdinando Sordelli. 1874. Iconographie générale des Ophidiens: Quarante-cinquième Livraison. Lutetiae: Baillière.
  • Joger, Ulrich, P. Lenk, İbrahim Baran, W. Böhme, T. Ziegler, P. Heidrich, et M. Wink. 1997. "The phylogenetic position of Vipera barani and of Vipera nikolskii within the Vipera berus complex." Herpetologica Bonnensis 185–94.
  • Joger, Ulrich, et Ralf Wollesen, eds. 2004. Verbreitung, Ökologie und Schutz der Kreuzotter (Vipera berus). Mertensiella 15. ISBN 3-9806577-6-0.
  • Linnaeus, Carolus. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, diferentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio Decima, Reformata. Holmiae: L. Salvius.
  • Mallow, David, David Ludwig, et Göran Nilson. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxicology of Old World Vipers. Malabar Floridae: Krieger Publishing Company. ISBN 0-89464-877-2.
  • McDiarmid, R. W., J. A. Campbell, et T. Touré. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Vasingtoniae: Herpetologists' League. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volumen).
  • Minton, Sherman A., Jr. 1974. Venom Diseases. Campifonte Illinoesiae: CC Thomas Publishing. ISBN 978-0-398-03051-3.
  • Morris, P. A. 1948. "The common viper, Vipera berus." In Boy's Book of Snakes: How to Recognize and Understand Them, a volume of the Humanizing Science Series, ed. Jacques Cattell, 154–55, 182. Novi Eboraci: Ronald Press.
  • Schiemenz, Hans. 1995. Die Kreuzotter. Neue Brehm-Bücherei Band 332, Westarp Wissenschaften, Hohenwarsleben. ISBN 3-89432-151-2.
  • Wüster, W., C. S. E. Allum, I. B. Bjargardottir, K. L. Bailey, K. J. Dawson, J. Guenioui, J. Lewis, J. McGurk, A. G. Moore, M. Niskanen, et C. P. Pollard. 2004. "Do aposematism and Batesian mimicry require bright colours? A test, using European viper markings." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271: 2495–99. PDF.. Archivum, Wolfgang Wüster, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor.

Nexus externiRecensere

  Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Viperam berum spectant.
  Vide "Viperam berum" apud Vicispecies.
  Situs scientifici:  • ITIS • NCBI • Biodiversity • Fossilworks • INPN France