Abhaya Caranāravinda Bhaktivedānta Svāmi

(Redirectum de Prabupada)

Abhaya Caranāravinda Bhaktivedānta Svāmi (natus Abhay Charan De অভয়চরণ দে[1] Calcuttae in Praesidentia Bengalica Indiae Britannicae die 1 Septembris 1896; mortuus Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh Indiae die 14 Novembris 1977) fuit spiritualis docens Indicus et conditor praeceptorque Societatis Internationalis Conscientiae Krishnensis (ISKCON), late Motus Hare Krishna appellatae. Sodales huius motús eum habent vicarium nuntiumque Krsna Caitanya,[2][3][4][5] mystici Hinduici Bengalici saeculorum quinti decimi et sexti decimi.

Bhaktivedānta Swāmi in Germania anno 1974 canit.
Prabhupada cum Carlofriedo Graf Dürckheim Francofurti mane mense Iunio 1974 circumambulat.
Prabhupada in Germania anno 1974.
Abhaya Caranāravinda Bhaktivedānta Svāmi senex.
Templum ISKCON Tirupathi in urbe Indica.
Palatium Aureum anno 1982.
Monumentum (samadhi) Vrindavana in urbe.
Monumentum Mayapur in urbe.

Abhaya Caranāravinda Bhaktivedānta Svāmi educatus est in Collegio Ecclesiae Scoticae Calcuttae.[6] Ante 1950, cum novicius (vanaprastha) factus esset,[7] uxor et liberi ei erant, et parvum medicamentorum negotium possedit.[8][9] Anno 1959, votum repudiationis (sannyasa) suscepit, et commentarios de scripturis sacris Vaishnavensibus scribere coepit.[10] Monachus Vaishnava ultimis annis peregrinans, auctoritatem habuit theologiam Gaudiya Vaishnava in India et praecipue mundo Occidentali per ISKCON communicans, quod anno 1966 condiderat.[11][12] Conditor ISKCON, "notus est maior contraculturae Occidentalis persona, milia iuvenum Americanorum initians."[13][14] Greges autem cultús contradicentes eum reprehendebat, sed in eum bono animo erant eruditi religiosi sicut J. Stillson Judah, Harvey Cox, Laurentius Shinn, et Thomas Hopkins, qui eius libros conversos laudaverunt et gregem defenderunt contra imagines quas media magnaria male interpretebantur.[15] Duces aliorum motuum denominationis Gaudiya Vaishnava eius res gestas laudaverunt.[16]

Descriptus est dux charismaticus sensu a Maximiliano Weber sociologo proposito, quia sectatores in Civitatibus Foederatis, Europa, India, et alibi attraxit.[17][18][19] Ipse in animo diu habebat propagare per mundum Gaudiya Vaishnavismum, scholam Hinduismi Vaishnaistici, quae ei docta erat a Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati, eius guru.[11] Prabhupāda autem anno 1977 mortuo, societas quam condiderat, in genere Krishnaismi Hinduici condita, Bhagavata Purana eius scriptura maximi momenti, crescere persistit. Mense Februario anni 2014, minsterium nuntiorum ISKCON nuntiavit se plus quam 5 000 000 eius librorum ex 1965 distribuisse.[20] Eius Bhagavadgītā conversus et commentariis explicatus, Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is appellatus, a sectatoribus motús ISKCON multisque eruditis Vedicis aestimatur unum ex optimis litterarum operibus traditionis Vaishnavismi in Anglicum conversis.[2][3][4][5][21]

HonoresRecensere

Sectatores appellationes dignitatis et existimationis more maiorum ei tribuerunt.

  • Swāmījī, primus honor a discipulis Americanis tributus.
  • Prabhupāda, a discipulis Americanis anno 1968 tributus et ab ISKCON promulgatus.
  • Śrīla Prabhupāda, a discipulis Americanis anno 1968 tributus et ab ISKCON promulgatus.
  • Sua gratia divina (Anglice His Divine Grace), titulus alloquendi, a discipulis Americanis tributus et ab ISKCON promulgatus.
  • Svāmī Mahārāj, in Gauḍīya Maṭha, eius denominatione propria, adhibitus (ubi Prabhupāda solum Bhaktisiddhānta Gosvāmī significat).
  • Śrīla Bhaktivedānta, in Missione Chaitanya / Scientia Identitatis adhibitus (ubi Prabhupāda solum Chris Butler significat).

De vitaRecensere

Abhaya Caranāravinda Bhaktivedānta Svāmi anno vicensimo duo aetatis suae quendam Radharani Devi duxit, puellam undecim annorum natam, in matrimonio legitimo a parentibus ordinato, quae uxor nunc quattuordecim annorum nata eius primum filium peperit.[22]

Periodicum Back to Godhead condidit,[23][24] cuius scriptor, designator, publicator, editor, distributor fuit. Logotypum quidem designavit, imaginem Chaitanya Mahaprabhu ferentem, cum sententiá Numen Est Lumen, Inscientia Est Obscuritas (Anglice "Godhead is Light, Nescience is darkness").[25]

Mortuus est die 14 Novembris 1977, et corpus in suo fano (samadhi) iuxta Vrindavan sepultum est.

ControversiaeRecensere

Praeter res religiosas, politicas phyleticasque notiones controversas iterum atque iterum exprimebat, plerumque ex "primá fide Hinduicá, quae affirmat populos cutis fuscae imum hierarchiae humanitatis gradum complere—rectam imaginem antiquae rationis ordinis Indici in coloribus conditae."[26] Indi Americani, quos Indos Rubros insolenter appellabat, cum nigricoloribus comparabat, separationem phyleticam comprobabans, etiam dicens Africanos, Afroamericanos, omnesque quidem homines cutis fuscae ubique in mundo, adeo in India, in servitudinem conici perpetuoque teneri debere. Similiter Iudaeos detestari solebat, Hitlerum Nazistasque magni aestimans. Praeterea, eugenicam homophobiamque amplexum esse,[27][28] feminismum reprehendisse[29] dicebatur.

Nexus interni

NotaeRecensere

  1. Abhay Charan significare dicitur 'virum qui impavidus est, ad pedes Domini Krishnae refugium petens'.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Melton, John Gordon. Hare Krishna. www.britannica.com 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada" 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Who is Srila Prabhupada?" 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Avatar Credentials by his Divine Grace A. C. Prabhupada" .
  6. Jones 2007: 77–78.
  7. Goswami 2002: 6.
  8. Rhodes 2001.
  9. Goswami 2002: 4.
  10. Goswami 2002: 9.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Klostermaier 2007: 217.
  12. Ekstrand et Bryant 2004: 23.
  13. Anglice "emerged as a major figure of the Western counterculture, initiating thousands of young Americans."
  14. Klostermaier 2007: 309.
  15. Vasan et Lewis 2005: 129.
  16. Paramadvaiti, Swami B. A.. "Branches of the Gaudiya Math". www.vrindavan.org 
  17. Chryssides 2012.
  18. "In an evaluation of the nature of the guru, Larry Shinn, a scholar of religions, utilised Max Weber's analysis of charisma in order to understand Prabhupada and the issue of leadership in ISKCON . . . status as charismatic leader" Knott 1997.
  19. Shinn 1987: 49.
  20. Smullen 2014.
  21. Smullen 2014.
  22. http://www.prabhupada.org.uk/articles1/48_53/48.htm "Srila Prabjupada's marriage."]
  23. Cole et Dwayer 2007: 34.
  24. Goswami 1984: xviii.
  25. Goswami 2002: 1: caput 5.
  26. Anglice "his deep-seated Hindu beliefs that dark-skinned peoples represent the very bottom of the hierarchy of the human race—a direct reflection of India's ancient color-based caste system" (Ghosh 2013).
  27. Geoff 2011.
  28. Ghost 2013.
  29. "Hare Krishna Truth Out."

BibliographiaRecensere

  • Bhaktivedanta, A. C. 2003. The Science of self-realization. Angelopoli: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. ISBN 91-7149-447-2.
  • Chryssides, George D. 2012. "Unrecognized charisma? A study and comparison of five charismatic leaders: Charles Taze Russell, Joseph Smith, L Ron Hubbard, Swami Prabhupada and Sun Myung Moon." Max Weber Studies 12 (2): 185–204. JSTOR 24579924. doi:10.15543/MWS/2012/2/4.
  • Cole, Richard, et Graham Dwayer. 2007. The Hare Krishna movement: forty years of chant and change. Londinii: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-407-7.
  • Cox, Harvey, Larry D. Shinn, Thomas J. Hopkins, A. L. Basham, et Shrivatsa Goswami. 1983. Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna: five distinguished scholars on the Krishna movement in the West, ed. Steven J. Gelber. Novi Eboraci: Grove Press.
  • Ekstrand, Maria, et Edwin H. Bryan. 2004. The Hare Krishna movement: the postcharismatic fate of a religious transplant. Novi Eboraci: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12256-X.
  • Goswami, Satsvarūpa dāsa. 1983. Srila Prabhupada: ha costruito una casa in cui il mondo intero può vivere, Angelopoli: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. ISBN 0-89213-133-0.
  • Goswami, Satsvarupa dasa. 1984. Prabhupada: he built a house in which the whole world can live. Ed. imminuta. Angelopoli: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. ISBN 0-89213-133-0.
  • Goswami, Satsvarupa dasa. 2002. Srila Prabhupada Lilamrta. 2 vol. Ed. 2a. Angelopoli: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. ISBN 0-89213-357-0.
  • Goswami, Srivatsa, Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami, Harvey Cox, Thomas J. Hopkins, et Judah, J. Stillson. 1983. "Review: Srila Prabhupada-Lilamrta." Journal of Asian Studies 42 (4): 986–88. doi:10.2307/2054828. ISSN 0021-9118. JSTOR 2054828.
  • Jones, Constance. 2007. Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Novi Eboraci: Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9.
  • Klostermaier, Klaus K. 2000. Hinduism: a short history. Oxoniae: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-213-9.
  • Klostermaier, Klaus K 2007. A survey of Hinduism. Ed. 3a. Albaniae: Novi Eboraci State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7081-7.
  • Knott, Kim. 1997. "Insider and outsider perceptions of Prabhupada." ISKCON Communications Journal 5: 1.
  • Knott, Kim. 2005. "Insider/outsider perspectives in the study of religions." In The Routledge companion to the study of religion, ed. John Hinnells, 243. Novi Eboraci: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-33311-5.
  • Rhodes, Linda. 2001. The challenge of the cults and new religions. Grand Rapids Michiganiae: Zondervan. ISBN 0-310-23217-1.
  • Sharma, Jagdish Saran, ed. 1981. Encyclopaedia Indica. OCLC 8033900. OL 13760440M.
  • Shinn, Larry D. 1987. "The future of an old man's vision. ISKCON in the twenty-first century," ed. David G. Bromley. The Future of New Religious Movements 123–40. ISBN 978-0-86554-238-9.
  • Shinn, Larry D. 1987. The dark lord: cult images and the Hare Krishnas in America. Philadelphiae: Westminster Press. ISBN 0-664-24170-0. OCLC 15017927. OL 2737873M.
  • Shinn, Larry D., et David G. Bromley. 1989. Krishna consciousness in the West. Lewisburg Pennsylvaniae: Bucknell University Press. ISBN 0-8387-5144-X.
  • Vasan, Mildred, et James P. Lewis. 2005. Cults. Contemporary World Issues. Sanctae Barbarae Californiae: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-618-3.

Nexus externiRecensere

  Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Prabhupadam spectant.