Larus argentatus ad.jpg

Classis : Aves 
Infraclassis : Neognathae 
Ordo : Charadriiformes 
Subordo : Lari 
Familia : Laridae 
Rafinesque, 1815
   
Subdivisiones: Genera
Vide commentarium.

Laridae sunt familiae avium maritimarum ordinis Charadriiformium, cui sunt lari, sterninae, et rynchopes, et quae circa centum species in viginti duo genera digestas comprehendit. Quae aves, plerumque aeriales, sese ad circumiecta per omnem orbem terrarum facile accommodant.

TaxinomiaRecensere

 
Laridae in Lacu Baical.

Formula:Cladogram

Familia Laridarum (nomine Laridia) a Constantino Samuele Rafinesque, polymathe Francico, anno 1815 introducta est.[1][2] Quae familia olim solum laros comprehendebat, cum sterninae in Sternidas rhyncopesque in Rynchopidas, suas familias proprias, digerentur,[3] anois eodem tempore in Sternidas digestis. Anno autem 1990, Carolus Sibley et Ionatan Ahlquist species alcidarum et stercorarii in Laridas, familiam latiorem, digesserunt.[4]

Studium moleculare phylogeneticum a Baker, Pereira, et Paton anno 2007 divulgatum asseruit aves generis Anoi gregem sororium cladi qui laros, rhyncopes, aliosque sternos comprehendit constituere.[5] Ad gregem familiarem monophyleticum constituendam, familiam Laridarum amplificavit, ut nova familia quaedam genera olim in Sternidas Rynchopidasque digesta comprehenderet.[6][7]

Baker et socii invenierunt stirpem laridarum ex stirpe decessisse ex qua Stercorariidae Alcidaeque ortae erant, ante Cretaceum finitum per aevum dinosaurorum. Etiam invenierunt liridas ipsas Palaeocaeno ineunte abhinc annorum 60 milliones fere crescere coepisse.[8] Geraldus Mayr, palaeontologus Germanus, haec tempora dubitans, subiecit fossilia non idonea inter data molecularia adhibita fuisse. Prima charadriiformium fossilia solum ex Eocaeno exeunte exstant, abhinc annorum 35 milliones fere.[9]

Andreas Ödeen et socii, evolutionem facultatis visus radiationis ultraviolaceae in avibus litoralibus investigantes, genum SWS1 opsin in variis speciebus perscrutabantur, quia lari fuerant solae aves litorales qui hanc proprietatem nactae erant. Invenierunt hoc genum adesse in stirpibus larorum, rynchopum, et anoorum, sed non in stirpe sterninarum. Praeterea, probaverunt anoos esse unam ex primis stirpibus; indicia autem non validiora videntur.[10]

GeneraRecensere

Genera ordine taxinomico infra perscribuntur.

AnousRecensere

RynchopsRecensere

LariRecensere

SterninaeRecensere

Distributio et habitatioRecensere

Laridae per omnem tellurem inveniuntur, partim accommodationis causa. Plurimae multo aerialiores quam maiores sunt, qui ut videntur erant aves litorales.[11]

Nexus interni

NotaeRecensere

  1. Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel (1815) (Francogallice). Analyse de la nature ou, Tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés. Palermo: Self-published. p. 72 .
  2. Bock 1994: 138, 252.
  3. Christidis et Boles 2008: 128.
  4. Charles Gald Sibley et Jon Edward Ahlquist (1990): Phylogeny and classification of birds. Portu Novi: Yale University Press.
  5. Baker, Pereira, et Paton 2007.
  6. Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Noddies, gulls, terns, auks". World Bird List Version 9.2. International Ornithologists' Union 
  7. Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.; Bonan, A.. "Gulls, Terns, Skimmers (Laridae)". In del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. et al. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions .
  8. Baker, Pereira, et Paton 2007.
  9. Mayr 2011.
  10. Odeen, Håstad, et Alström 2010.
  11. Moynihan 1959.

BibliographiaRecensere

  • Baker, Allan J., Sérgio L. Pereira, et Tara A. Paton. 2007. "Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of Charadriiformes genera: multigene evidence for the Cretaceous origin of at least 14 clades of shorebirds." Biology Letters 3: 205–209. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0606. PMC 2375939. PMID 17284401.
  • Baker, Allan J., Sérgio L. Pereira, et Tara A. Paton. 2008. "Erratum: Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of Charadriiformes genera: multigene evidence for the Cretaceous origin of at least 14 clades of shorebirds." Biology Letters 4: 762–63. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0606erratum.
  • Bent, Arthur Cleveland. (1921) 1986. Life histories of North American gulls and terns. Novi Eboraci: Dover Publications. ISBN 0486252620.
  • Bock, Walter J. 1994. History and Nomenclature of Avian Family-Group Names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 222. Novi Eboraci: American Museum of Natural History. Editio interretialis.
  • Christidis, Les, et Walter E. Boles. 2008.l Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Canberrae: CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 978-0-643-06511-6. Google Books.
  • Grant, Peter J. 1986. Gulls: a guide to identification. ISBN 0-85661-044-5.
  • Howell, Steve N. G., et Jon Dunn. 2007. Gulls of the Americas. ISBN 0-618-72641-1.
  • Mayr, Gerald. 2011. "The phylogeny of charadriiform birds (shorebirds and allies): reassessing the conflict between morphology and molecules." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (4): 916–34. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00654.x.
  • Moynihan, Martin. 1959. A revision of the family Laridae (Aves). American Museum Novitates, no. 1928. Novi Ebooaci: American Museum of Natural History PDF.
  • Odeen, Anders, Olle Håstad, et Per Alström.2010. "Evolution of ultraviolet vision in shorebirds (Charadriiformes)." Biology Letters 6 (3): 370–74. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0877. PMC 2880050. PMID 20015861.
  • Olsen, Klaus Malling, et Hans Larsson. 1995. Terns of Europe and North America. Helm Identification Guides. Londinii. ISBN 0-7136-4056-1.

Nexus externiRecensere

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