Aperire sectionem principem
A furry, streamlined mammal swimming through the water with toes visible on each foot, similar to those of an elephant. All limbs are thrust backward or underneath the animal.
Prorastomus, unum ex primis sireniis (40 mya)
Diversitas specierum mammalium marinarum: A, omnes species (n = 115); B, Odontocetes (n = 69); C, Mysticetes (n = 14); D, Pinnipedia (n = 32). Ex datis ex decennio 1990–1999.[1].

Mammale marinum est mammale aquaticum quod oceano aliisve oecosystematibus marinis ut vitam agat nititur. Inter quae animalia sunt pinnipedia, cetacea, sirenia, enhydrae lutres, ursique maritimi. Taxon distinctum vel collectionem systematicam non constituunt, sed potius coniunctiones polyphyleticas ob evolutionem convergentem habent, quia proximo antecessore communi carent. Similes inter se videntur solum quia alimenti causa in potestate circumiectorum marinorum vertuntur.

Accommodatio mammalium marinorum ad vitam aquaticam magnopere inter species varint. Cetacea et sirenia penitus aquatica sunt, et ergo in aqua habitare debent. Otariidae et alia pinnipedia sunt semiaquatica; maximam vitae partem in aqua degunt, sed ad litus redeunt ut coeant, pariant, pellemque ponant. Ex contrario, lutrinae ursique maritimi ad vitam aquaticam multo minus accommodati sunt: eorum victus ratio aliquantum variat; alii plancton heterotrophicum, alii pisces, decapodiformes, invertebrata exosceletus ferentia, gramen maritimum, alii alia mammalia edere possunt.

Mammalia marina olim ab indigenis pro cibo et aliis opibus quaerebantur. Ob venatione mercatoriam, Hydrodamalis gigas, Hydrodamalis gigas, Zalophus japonicus, et Neomonachus tropicalis exstincti sunt. Venatione autem mercatoria finita, nonnullae species, inter quas Eschrichtius robustus et Mirounga angustirostris, iterum vigere coeperunt; e converso, aliae species, insigniter Eubalaena glacialis, in periculum summo discrimine vocantur. Damnatio habitationis mammalia marina et eorum potestatem cibi inveniendi et capiendi etiam minatur.

Index

Classificatio specierum exstantiumRecensere

EvolutioRecensere

Mammalia marina sunt grex 129 fere specierum quae oceano earum vitae causa nituntur.[4][5] Ad taxon distinctum vel collectionem systematicam non pertinent, sed potius coniunctiones polyphyleticas habent. Coniunguntur etiam per fidem in circumiectis marinis vescendi.[6] Gradus fiduciae in circumiectis marinis ut superstites sint inter species magnopere variat. Exempli gratia, cetacea circumiectis marinis omnino in omnibus aetatis partibus nituntur; pinnipedia in oceano vescuntur, sed in terra fetus pariunt; atque ursi maritimi in terra vel super glaciem vesci debent.[6] Ex omnibus mammalium marinorum speciebus, viginti tres centesimae sub minas? sunt.[7][8]

NotaeRecensere

  1. Kaschner, K.; Tittensor, D. P.; Ready, J.; Gerrodette, T.; Worm, B. (2011). "Current and future patterns of global marine mammal biodiversity". PLoS ONE 6 (5): e19653 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Perrin, William F.; Baker, C. Scott; Berta, Annalisa et al, eds. (2014). "The Society for Marine Mammalogy's Taxonomy Committee List of Species and subspecies" 
  3. Arroyo-Cabrales, J.; Ospina-Garces, S. (2016). "Myotis vivesi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T14209A22069146 .
  4. Kaschner, K.; Tittensor, D. P.; Ready, J.; Gerrodette, T.; Worm, B. (2011). "Current and Future Patterns of Global Marine Mammal Biodiversity". PLoS ONE 6 (5): e19653 
  5. Pompa, S.; Ehrlich, P. R.; Ceballos, G. (2011-08-16). "Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (33): 13600–13605 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Jefferson, T. A.; Webber, M. A.; Pitman, R. L. (2009). Marine Mammals of the World A Comprehensive Guide to their Identification (1st ed.). London: Academic Press. pp. 7–16. ISBN 978-0-12-383853-7 .
  7. Schipper, J.; Chanson, J. S.; Chiozza, F.; Cox, N. A.; Hoffmann, M.; Katariya, V.; Lamoreux, J.; Rodrigues, A. S. L. et al (2008). "The Status of the World's Land and Marine Mammals: Diversity, Threat, and Knowledge". Science 322 (5899): 225–30 .
  8. Schipper, J.; Chanson, J. S.; Chiozza, F.; Cox, N. A. (2008). "The status of the world's land and marine mammals: diversity, threat, and knowledge". Science 322 (5899): 225–230 .

BibliographiaRecensere

  • Beddington, J. R., R. J. H. Beverton, et D. M. Lavigne. 1985. Marine mammals and fisheries. Londinium et Bostoniae: G. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0046390030.
  • Berta, Annalisa, et James L. Sumich. 1999. Marine mammals: evolutionary biology. Illust. Pieter Arend Folkens et Peter J. Adam. Didacopoli: Academic Press. ISBN 0120932253.
  • Boyd, I. L., ed. 1993. Marine mammals: advances in behavioural and population biology: the proceedings of a symposium held at the Zoological Society of London on 9th and 10th April 1992. Oxoniae: Published for the Zoological Society of London by Clarendon Press; Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198540698.
  • Cousteau, Jacques. 1973. Mammals in the sea. Novi Eboraci: New World Publishing. ISBN 0529050773.
  • Duguy, Raymond, et Daniel Robineau. 1982. Guide des mammifères marins d'Europe. Neuchâtel Helvetiae: Delachaux & Niestlé. ISBN 260300168X.
  • Gambell, Ray. 1974. The life of sea mammals: a simple introduction to the way sea mammals live and behave. Londinii: Macdonald and Co. ISBN 0356048497.
  • Perrin, W. F., B. Wursig, et J. G. M. Thewissen. 2009. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, ed. 2a. Didacopoli: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-0809-1993-5. OCLC 316226747. Google Books 2rkHQpToi9sC.
  • Reynolds, John E., et Sentiel A. Rommel, eds. 1999. Biology of marine mammals. Vasingtoniae: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1560983752.
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine mammals of the world: systematics and distribution. Laurentiae Kansiae: Society for Marine Mammalogy. ISBN 1891276034.
  • Richardson, W. John, et al. 1995. Marine Mammals and Noise. Didacopoli: Academic Press. ISBN 0125884400.
  • Stonehouse, Bernard. 1985. Sea mammals of the world. Illust. Martin Camm. Harmondsworth Middlesexiae Angliae et Novi Eboraci: Penguin. ISBN 0140070818.
  • Uhen, M. D. 2007. Evolution of marine mammals: Back to the sea after 300 million years. The Anatomical Record 290 (6): 514–22. doi:10.1002/ar.20545 PMID 17516441.

Nexus externiRecensere