Benitus Mussolini

Dux Fascisticus Italiae inter 1922-1945
Wikidata-logo.svg Benitus Mussolini
Res apud Vicidata repertae:
Benitus Mussolini: imago
Benitus Mussolini: subscriptio
Nativitas: 29 Iulii 1883; Praesidium Domini Appi, Predappio
Obitus: 28 Aprilis 1945; Giulino
Patria: Res Publica Socialis Italica, Regnum Italiae
Nomen nativum: Benito Mussolini

Officium

Officium: Praeses Consilii ministrorum Regni Italiae, First marshal of the empire, minister of Interior of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Interior of the Kingdom of Italy, Minister rerum externarum, Primus minister, minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Public Works of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Public Works of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Public Works of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of War of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of War of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of War of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of the Navy of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of the Navy of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of the Navy of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Air Force of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Air Force of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Air Force of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Air Force of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Italian Africa of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Italian Africa of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Italian Africa of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Corporations of the Kingdom of Italy, minister of Corporations of the Kingdom of Italy, member of the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom of Italy, member of the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom of Italy, member of the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom of Italy, member of the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom of Italy, national councillor to the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations
Munus: diurnarius, Doctor, politicus
Patronus: Avanti!

Consociatio

Factio: Republican Fascist Party, Factio Nationalis Fascistica, Factio Socialistica Italica, Fasci Italiani di Combattimento

Familia

Genitores: Alessandro Mussolini; Rosa Maltoni
Coniunx: Rachel Mussolini, Ida Dalser
Proles: Bruno Mussolini, Edda Ciano, Vittorio Mussolini, Anna Maria Mussolini, Romanus Mussolini, Benito Albino Dalser

Memoria

Laurae: Ordo Aquilae Albae, Order of the White Lion, Order of the Golden Spur, Order of Lāčplēsis, Order of the Quetzal, Collar of the Imperial Order of the Red Arrows, Ordo Supremus Sanctae Annuntiationis, Military Order of Italy, Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Knight grand cross of the order of the crown of Italy, Colonial Order of the Star of Italy, Ordo Hospitalis, Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre, Order of the German Eagle, Order of the Bath, Cross of Liberty, Order of Skanderbeg, Order of the Roman Eagle, Ordo Crucis Meridionalis, Ordo Regius Seraphim, Ordo Elephantis, Cross of Vytis, Grand Collar of the Military Order of the Tower and Sword, Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum, Honorary doctor of the University of Lausanne, Grand Cross of the Military Order of the Tower and Sword, Order of the Chrysanthemum, Order of the Crown of Italy, Ordo Aquilae Albae, Military Order of the Tower and Sword, Goethe-Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft, Grand Cross of Naval Merit with white badge, Victory Medal, Order of the Star of Nepal, Order of the Liberator, National Order of Merit Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, Order of Solomon, Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius
Sepultura: Q60840620, major cemetery of Milan

Insignia heraldica

Benitus Mussolini: insigne

Benitus Hamilcar Andreas Mussolini,[1] cognominatus Dux (Italice Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini dictus il Duce; 29 Iulii 188328 Aprilis 1945), fuit ab anno 1922 usque ad mortem dictator Italicus et dux factionis fascistae.

VitaRecensere

Benitus Mussolini natus est Duobus Viis (Dovia) (Italice Dovia) in municipio Praesidio Domini Appi (Italice Predappio) apud Forum Livii die 29 Iulii 1883, filius magistrae Rosae Maltoni et fabri Alexandri, qui ad honorem Beniti Juárez politicorum periti Mexicani nomen Benito ei imposuit.

Ante primum bellum mundanum Mussolini, qui iuvenis magistri et postea diurnarii munere functus erat, politicus socialisticus fuit, et etiam factionis diario L'Avanti praepositus, sed anno 1915 ab hac factione discessit quia, dum factio socialistica pacem, Mussolini autem bellum contra Germaniam et Imperium Austro-Hungaricum parabat.

Die 17 Decembris 1915 Benitus Mussolini Rachelem Guidi in matrimonium duxit, quacum antea multos annos iam more uxorio vixerat.

Post bellum Mediolani die 23 Martii 1919 novam factionem Fasci di combattimento ('fasces pugnae') condidit, cui die 7 Novembris 1921 novum nomen Factionem Nationalem Fascisticam imposuit.

Postquam fascistae Romam die 28 Octobris 1922 processerunt, Mussolini a perterrito rege Victorio Emanuele III Praeses consilii ministrorum creatus est. Insequentibus annis (19231925) Mussolini se gradatim dictatorem Italiae fecit et multos adversarios (sicut Petrum Nenni, Alexandrum Pertini, Iosephum Saragat) in exsilium ire coegit, denique nomen suum etiam sceleribus contaminavit, nam cum alii tum Iacobus Matteotti, Ioannes Minzoni (presbyter), Petrus Gobetti, Ioannes Amendola a fascistis necati sunt.

 
Benitus Mussolini.

Die 11 Februarii 1929, Mussolini magnum exitum habuit, cum subscriptae sunt a cardinale Secretario Status Petro Gasparri et ab eo concordantiae inter Civitatem Vaticanam et Italiam (Lateranensia pacta). Anno 1935, exercitus Italianus iussu Mussolini Aethiopiam agressus est. Quod idcirco a Societate Civitatum vituperatus est, mense Iulio 1936 motum generalis Francisci Franco contra Rem Publicam Hispanicam adiuvit 1 Novembris eiusdem anni Mediolani Mussolini orationem habens primo tempore de "Axe Berolino–Romam" dixit, de foedere duorum dictaturarum, quamquam iam anno proximo Strixiae cum Britanniarum Unito atque Francia foedus contra Hitlerum constituerat.

Anno 1938, Mussolini Adolfi Hitler exemplum consecutus est et vexationes legesque infames contra Iudaeos decrevit, quamquam multos annos inter amantes suas Margarita Sarfatti diurnaria scriptrixque Iudaica fuerat.

Post Adolfi Hitleri victorias contra Poloniam, Norvegiam et Daniam, Nederlandiam, Belgicam, et Luxemburgum, Mussolini die 10 Iunii 1940, gloriae cupiditate adductus, bellum Franciae et Imperio Britannico indixit.

Die 25 Iulii 1943, postquam Civitates Foederatae exercitum in litore Siculo exposuerant et hanc insulam celeriter ceperant, Fascismi Magnum Consilium Beniti Mussolini imperium abrogavit. Die 8 Septembris, Italia indutias ab alligatis civitatibus impetravit, sed iam die 12 Septembris 1943 a Germanis ut dux Rei Publicae Socialis Italicae restitutus est.

Post cladem Germanicorum et Italicorum militum, etiam in Italia septemtrionali die 25 Aprilis 1945 Mussolini cum amante Clara Petacci fugam e Mediolano in Vallem Telinam conatus est, sed iam die 28 Aprilis veste militis Germanici abditus in vico Giulini apud Larium Lacum (hodie Giulino) manibus militum qui contra potestatem suam et pro libertate pugnabant comprehensus est et insequenti die supplicio affectus est.

Postea cadavera Mussolini, Clarae, aliorumque factionis fascisticae ducum in foro Laureto Mediolani suspensa sunt.

FamiliaRecensere

Benitus Mussolini Rachelem Guidi die 17 Decembris 1915 in matrimonium duxit, quamquam iam a mense Ianuario 1910 cum ea more uxorio vixerit. Quinque fuerunt filii Rachelis et Beniti:

Inscriptio Fontis Monumentalis BrundisianiRecensere

ANNO DOMINI MCMXL
XVIII AB ITALIA PER FASCES RENOVATA
VICTORIO EMMANUELE REGE ET IMPERATORE:
BENITO MUSSOLINI DVCE
PROVINCIA F[eliciter]. F[ecit].

NotaeRecensere

  1. Fons nominis: vide seriem librorum annis 1930 divulgatam ""Scriptores Graeci et Latini iussu Beniti Mussolini consilio R. Academia Lynceorum editi".

BibliographiaRecensere

  • Bosworth, R. J. B. 2002. Mussolini. Londinie: Hodder.
  • Bosworth, R. J. B. 2006. "Mussolini's Italy: Life Under the Dictatorship 1915–1945." Londinii: Allen Lane.
  • Celli, Carlo. 2013. Economic Fascism: Primary Sources on Mussolini's Crony Capitalism. Axios Press.
  • Corvaja, Santi. 2001. Hitler and Mussolini. The Secret Meetings. Enigma. ISBN 1-929631-00-6
  • Daldin, Rudolph S. "The Last Centurion." Wayback Machine. ISBN 0-921447-34-5
  • De Felice, Renzo. 1965. Mussolini: Il Rivoluzionario,1883–1920. Turini: Einaudi.
  • De Felice, Renzo. 1966. Mussolini: Il Fascista: 1: La conquista del potere, 1920–1925. Turini: Einaudi.
  • De Felice, Renzo. 1969. Mussolini: Il Fascista: 2: L'organizzazione dello Stato fascista, 1925–1929. Turini: Einaudi.
  • De Felice, Renzo. 1974. Mussolini: Il Duce: 1: Gli anni del consenso, 1929–1936. Tirino: Einaudi.
  • De Felice, Renzo. 1981. Mussolini. Il Duce: 2: Lo stato totalitario, 1936–1940. Turini: Einaudi.
  • De Felice, Renzo. 1990. Mussolini: L'Alleato, 1940–1942: 1: L'Italia in guerra I: Dalla "guerra breve" alla guerra lunga. Turini: Einaudi.
  • De Felice, Renzo. 1990. Mussolini: L'Alleato: 1: L'Italia in guerra II: Crisi e agonia del regime. Turini: Einaudi.
  • De Felice, Renzo. 1997. Mussolini: L'Alleato: 2: La guerra civile, 1943–1945. Turini: Einaudi.
  • Farrell, Nicholas. 2003. Mussolini: A New Life. Londinii: Phoenix Press. ISBN 1-84212-123-5.
  • Garibaldi, Luciano. 2004. Mussolini. The Secrets of his Death. Enigma. ISBN 1-929631-23-5.
  • Golomb, Jacob, et Robert S. Wistrich. 2002. Nietzsche, godfather of fascism?: on the uses and abuses of a philosophy. Princeton Novae Caesarear: Princeton University Press.
  • Gregor, Anthony James. 1979. Young Mussolini and the intellectual origins of fascism. Berkeliae et Angelopoli et Londinii: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520037991.
  • Haugen, Brenda. 2007. Benito Mussolini: Fascist Italian Dictator. Minneapoli: Compass Point Books. ISBN 978-0-7565-1988-9.
  • Hibbert, Christopher. Il Duce.
  • Kallis, Aristotle. 2000. Fascist Ideology. Londinii: Routledge.
  • Kroener, Bernhard R., Rolf-Dieter Muller, et Hans Umbreit. 2003. Germany and the Second World War Organization and Mobilization in the German Sphere of Power. Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820873-0.
  • Lowe, Norman. "Italy, 1918–1945: the first appearance of fascism." In Mastering Modern World History.
  • Morris, Terry, et Derrick Murphy. Europe 1870–1991.
  • Moseley, Ray. 2004. Mussolini: The Last 600 Days of Il Duce. Dallas: Taylor Trade Publishing.
  • Mussolini, Rachele. (1974) 1977. Mussolini: An Intimate Biography. Pocket Books. Primum editus a William Morrow. ISBN 0-671-81272-6. LCCN 74-1129.
  • O'Brien, Paul. 2004. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, the Soldier, the Fascist. Oxoniae: Berg Publishers.
  • Painter, Jr., Borden W. (2005). Mussolini's Rome: rebuilding the Eternal City.
  • Passannanti, Erminia. 2013. Mussolini nel cinema italiano: Passione, potere egemonico e censura della memoria: Un'analisi metastorica del film di Marco Bellocchio Vincere. ISBN 978-1-4927-3723-0
  • Petacco, Arrigo, ed. 1998. L'archivio segreto di Mussolini. Mondadori. ISBN 88-04-44914-4.
  • Smith, Denis Mack. 1982. Mussolini: A biography. Novi Eboraci: Borzoi Books, signum Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50694-4.
  • Stang, G. Bruce. 1999. "War and peace: Mussolini's road to Munich." In The Munich crisis 1938: prelude to World War II, ed/ Igor Lukes et Erik Goldstein, 160–90. Londinii: Frank Cass.
  • Sternhell, Zeev, Mario Sznajder, et Maia Asheri. 1994. The Birth of Fascist Ideology: From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution. Princeton Novae Caesareae: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-04486-6. Internet Archive.
  • Tucker, Spencer. 2005. Encyclopedia of World War I: a political, social, and military history. Barbaropoli Californiae: ABC-CLIO.
  • Weinberg, Gerhard. 2005. A World in arms. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Zuccotti, Susan. 1987. Italians and the Holocaust. Basic Books.

Nexus externusRecensere

  Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Benitum Mussolini spectant.
  Lexici biographici:  Treccani • Большая российская энциклопедия • Encyclopædia Britannica • Dizionario biografico degli Italiani • Commentatio Theodisce, Francogallice, Italice apud Lexicon historicum Helveticum