Archipelagus Malayanus

Archipelagus Malayanus (Caebuanice Kapupud-ang Malay; Malanice Kepulauan Melayu; Tagalogice Kapuluang Malay; Indonesice Nusantara) est archipelagus qui inter Indosinam continentalem et Australiam patet. Etiam in toto vel partim varie appellatus est Indi Orientales, Mundus Malayanus, Nusantara, Archipelagus Indo-Australianus, Archipelagus Condimentorum, et alia nomina propria. Quod nomen ex Europaea rassae Malayanae notione saeculo undevicensimo deductum est, vicissim ex geographica linguarum Austronesiarum distributione.[1]

Una e permultis insulis desertis in Philippinis.

Archipelagus, inter oceanos Indicum et Pacificum situs, plus quam 25 000 insularum et parvarum insularum continens, est maximus orbis terrarum archipelagus per aream et quartus a maximo per numerum insularum. Bruneium, Indonesiam, Malaesiam (Malaesiam Orientalem), Papuam Novam Guineam, Philippinas, Singapuram, et Timoriam Orientalem comprehendit.[2][3] Nomen plerumque est synonymum locutionis Asiae Meridianae Maritimae.[4]

Etymologia et terminologiaRecensere

Nomen archipelagi ex Europaea rassae Malayanae vel populorum Austronesianorum notione saeculo undevicensimo deductum est,[1] notione rassistica ab exploratoribus Europaeis posita ex eorum intellegentia potestatis Sri Vijaya, imperii Malaeanorum ethnicorum, cuius caput insula Sumatra in Indonesia erat.[5] Archipelagus autem insulas excludit aliquot a Malaeanis cultis, inter quas Madagascaria et Taivania, atque insulas includit a Melanesianis cultas, sicut Insulas Maluccas et Novam Guineam.

Alfredus Russel Wallace, naturalista saeculi undevicensimi, nomen Malay Archipelago ('Archipelagum Malayanum') titulum ad eius librum magni momenti adhibuit, qui eius studia florae faunaeque etiam adeo cultus humani huius regionis rettulit, quam Indian Archipelago ('Archipelagum Indicum') et Indo-Australian ('Archipelagum Indo-Australianum') quoque appellavit,[6][7] Praeterea intra regionem Insulas Salomonis et Paeninsulam Malayanam propter proprietates climatis oecologiaeque posuit,[1] sic scribens:[8]

"Si lineam ducimus . . . secundum occidentale Gilolo litus incipientem, per insulam Bouru, et circa occidentalem Mores finem flexentem, tum per Insulam Sandalwood ad Rotti includendam incurvantem, Archipelagum dividamus in binas partes, quarum rassis sunt manifeste distinctas proprietates. Quae linea Malayanam omnesque rassas Asiaticas a Papuanis omnibusque Pacificum colentibus separabit; et quamquam secundum lineam iunctionis interimmigratio et commixtura factae sunt, haec tamen disiunctio paene tam bene definita et valde discrepans quam zoologica archipelagi disiunctio congruens in toto est, ut ex regione Indo-Malayana et regione Austro-Malayana constet."[9]

Insulindia, aliquando usque adeo ad Australasiam spectans,[10] est aliud regionis nomen geographicum, quod autem diu priscum et obsoletum a nonnullis aestimatur.[11][12][13] Frequentius in litteris Portugallicis et Hispanicis videtur.[14][15][16] Aliquando in historia artis et anthropologia ad zonam permutandi inter culturas Oceaniae Asiaeque Meridianae describendas adhibetur.[17]

NotaeRecensere

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Wallace, Alfred Russel (1869). The Malay Archipelago. Londinii: Macmillan and Co. p. 1 .
  2. Encyclopædia Britannica (Sicagi: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2006).
  3. "Malay Archipelago." Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  4. ""Maritime Southeast Asia." Formula:Webarchive." Worldworx Travel. Accessus 26 Maii 2009.
  5. Anthony Reid, Understanding Melayu (Malay) as a Source of Diverse Modern Identities. Origins of Malayness (Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
  6. Wallace, Alfred Russel (1863). "On the Physical Geography of the Malay Archipelago" 
  7. Wallace, Alfred Russel (1869). The Malay Archipelago. Londinii: Macmillan and Co. p. 2 .
  8. Wallace, Alfred Russel (1869). "40: The Races of Man in the Malay Archipelago". The Malay Archipelago 
  9. Anglice: "If we draw a line . . . commencing along the western coast of Gilolo, through the island of Bouru, and curving round the west end of Mores, then bending back by Sandalwood Island to take in Rotti, we shall divide the Archipelago into two portions, the races of which have strongly marked distinctive peculiarities. This line will separate the Malayan and all the Asiatic races, from the Papuans and all that inhabit the Pacific; and though along the line of junction intermigration and commixture have taken place, yet the division is on the whole almost as well defined and strongly contrasted, as is the corresponding zoological division of the Archipelago, into an Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan region."
  10. Donaldus F. Lach et Edwin J. Van Kley, eds., Asia in the making of Europe: Volume III, A century of advance (Sicagi: University of Chicago Press, 1993, ISBN 978-0-226-46757-3): 1301–96.
  11. T. Barbour (1923), "Reptiles in the East and West Indies—and Some Digression," The American Naturalist 57, no. 649 (Martius-Aprilis): 125–128.
  12. "Review: The Tongking Delta and the Annamite House" (1937), Geographical Review 27, no. 3 (Iulius): 519–20
  13. A. Aiyappan (1939), "Pottery Braziers of Mohenjo-Daro," Man 39 (Maius): 71–72.
  14. "Sukarno and Portugal," Embaixada de Portugal em Jacarta, 2002: 61–62.
  15. António Augusto Mendes Correa, Timor português: contribuïções para o seu estudo antropológico. Volumen 1 Memórias: Série antropológica e etnológica, Portugal Junta de Investigações do Ultramar (Olisipone: Imprensa Nacional de Lisboa, 1944),.
  16. Jules Sion et Luis Villanueva López-Moreno, conv., Asia monzónica: India, Indochina, Insulindia, Volumen 13 Geografía Universal (Montaner y Simón, 1948).
  17. "Insulindia" (Musée du quai Branly).

BibliographiaRecensere

  • Bickmore, Albert S. 1991. Travels in the East Indian Archipelago. Praefatio John Bastin. Singapurae et Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195889819.
  • Crawfurd, John. 1985. History of the Indian Archipelago: containing an account of the manners, arts, languages, religions, institutions, and commerce of its inhabitants. Delii: B.R. Publishing.
  • Daws, Gavan, et Marty Fujita. 1999. Archipelago: the islands of Indonesia: from the nineteenth-century discoveries of Alfred Russel Wallace to the fate of forests and reefs in the twenty-first century. Prologos Eduardi O. Wilson; epilogos Ioannis C. Sawhill. Berkeleiae: University of California Press. ISBN 0520215761.
  • Rosenberg, C. B. H. von. 1878. Der Malayische Archipel: Land und Leute in Schilderungen, gesammelt während eines dreissigjährigen Aufenthaltes in den Kolonien von H. Von Rosenberg . . . Mit zahlreichen Illustrationen zumeist nach den Originalen des Verfassers und einem Vorwort von Professor P. J. Veth in Leiden. Lipsiae: G. Weigel.
  • Severin, Timothy. 1997. The Spice Islands voyage: the quest for Alfred Wallace, the man who shared Darwin's discovery of evolution. Photographemata Joe Beynon et Paul Harris; illustrationes Leonard Sheil. Novi Eboraci: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0786705183.
  • Van Oosterzee, Penny. 1997. Where worlds collide: the Wallace line. Kew Victoriae: Reed. ISBN 073010470.
  • Wallace, Alfred Russel. 1962. The Malay Archipelago, the land of the orang-utan and the bird of paradise; a narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. Novi Eboraci: Dover Publications.

Nexus interni

Nexus externiRecensere

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