Antlia ad demonstrandum vacuum adhibita.

Vacuum (ex vacuo) in sermone quotidiano est copia (Anglice: volume) spatii quod reapse est corpus inane, ut sua pressio gaseosa sit multo minus quam pressio atmosphaerica.[1] Vacuum absolutum est vacuum ubi nullae particulae insunt—quod facultate nullo modo fieri potest. Physici de perfectis investigationum fructibus saepe disceptant qui in vacuo absoluto fiant, quod ei tantum appellant "vacuum" vel "spatium liberum," aut vocabulum adhibent vacuum ex parte (Anglice: partial vacuum) ut ad vacuum verum spectent. Vocabulum autem in vacuo adhibetur ad describendam rem quae in vacuo alioquin insit.

Notio generis vel "qualitatis" vacui spectat ad gradum quo quodlibet vacuum revera vacuum absolutum appropinquet. Ceteris paribus, minor pressio gaseosa significat vacuum generis superioris. Exempli gratia, usitatum purgatrum vacuosum satis suctum gignit ut pressionem aeris circa 20 centesimis deminuat.[2]

Globuli electrici candentes vacuum ex parte continent, saepissime argono plenum, quod filamentum ex wolframio factum protegit.

Vacua generis multo maioris fieri possunt. Camerae vacuorum ultra-maximorum?, in chemia, physica, et arte ingeniaria quotidiana, sub unam trillionam? (10−12) pressionis atmosphaericae effectum habent, et ≈100 particulas/cm3 attingunt.[3] Spatium exterius (outer space) est vacuum generis etiam maioris, quod pro perpaucis atomis hydrogenii per metrum cubicum valet.[4] Si autem omnis atomus et omnis particula ex copia removeatur, vacuum non iam erit omnino vacuosum propter fluctuationes vacui, energiam obscuram, et alias in mechanica quantica res.

Notio vacui saepe fuit res disceptionis philosophica post tempora Graeciae antiquae, sed in usu tantum et experimentis posita primo fuit solum saeculo septimo decimo. Evangelista Torricelli primum in laboratorio vacuum anno 1643 generavit, et physici eius doctrinas de pressione atmosphaerica consequentes alias rationes in experimentis positas evolvunt. Efficitur vacuum Torricellianum alto vase vitreo in uno fine occluso et hydrargyro pleno in craterum inverso ad continendum hydrargyrum.[5]

Vacuum saeculo vicensimo factum est grave industriae instrumentum cum globuli electrici candentes et tubi vacuosi producerentur, et permulta technologiarum vacuosarum genera postea communia facta sunt. Recens volatus humani in spatio exspectationem effectuum vacui in salutem hominum, atque adeo formarum vitae in universum, concitavit.

Nexus interni

 
Haec pictura, An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump a Iosepho Wright Derbiensi anno 1768 facta, experimentum a Roberto Boyle anno 1660 confectum depingit.

NotaeRecensere

  1. Chambers, Austin (2004). Modern Vacuum Physics. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-2438-6 .
  2. Campbell, Jeff (2005). Speed cleaning. p. 97. ISBN 1594862745  Note that 1 inch of water is ≈0.0025 atm.
  3. Gabrielse 1990.
  4. Tadokoro, M. (1968). "A Study of the Local Group by Use of the Virial Theorem". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan 20: 230  Hic fons aestimat densitatem 7 × 10−29 g/cm pro Local Group.? Unitas massae atomicae est 1.66 × 10−24 g, pro ferme 40 atomos per metrum cubicum.
  5. How to Make an Experimental Geissler Tube, Popular Science monthly, February 1919, Unnumbered page, Scanned by Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=7igDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PT3.

BibliographiaRecensere

  • Aitchison, I. J. R. 2009. "Nothing’s plenty: The vacuum in modern quantum field theory." Contemporary Physics 50 (1): 261–319. ISSN 0010-7514.
  • Barrow, John D. 2000. The Book of Nothing. Londinii: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-05962-9.
  • Boi, Luciano. 2011. The Quantum Vacuum: A Scientific and Philosophical Concept, from Electrodynamics to String Theory and the Geometry of the Microscopic World. Baltimorae: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-0247-5. Google Books.
  • Bürger, Heinz-Dieter. 2004. "Die Geschichte der Vakuumkühlung." Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis 16 (2): 67–70. ISSN 0947-076X. doi:10.1002/vipr.200400217.
  • Chambers, Austin. 2004. Modern Vacuum Physics. Boca Raton Floridae: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-2438-3. OCLC 55000526.
  • Close, Frank. 2009. Das Nichts verstehen: Die Suche nach dem Vakuum und die Entwicklung der Quantenphysik. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8274-2095-4.
  • Gabrielse, G., et. al. 1990. "Thousandfold Improvement in Measured Antiproton Mass." Phys. Rev. Lett. 65 (11): 1317–20. doi::10.1103/PhysRevLett.65.1317. PMID 10042233. Bibcode 1990PhRvL..65.1317G.
  • Genz, Henning. 2001. Nothingness: The Science Of Empty Space. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-7382-0610-3. Google Books.
  • Genz, Henning. 2004. Nichts als das Nichts: Die Physik des Vakuums. Weinheimiae: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527-40319-1.
  • Granda, C., R. G. Moreira, et S. E. Tichy. 2004. "Reduction of Acrylamide Formation in Potato Chips by Low-temperature Vacuum Frying." Journal of Food Science 69 (8): 405–11. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb09903.x.
  • Harris, Nigel S. 1989. Modern Vacuum Practice. Novi Eboraci: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-707099-1.
  • Pupp, Wolfgang, et Heinz K. Hartmann. 1991. Vakuumtechnik: Grundlagen und Anwendungen. Lipsiae: Fachbuchverlag Leipzig. ISBN 3-446-15859-6.
  • Reidenbach, Christian. 2012. "Leere." In Lexikon der Raumphilosophie: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, ed. Stephan Günzel. 230+. Darmstadt. ISBN 978-3-534-21931-5.
  • Reidenbach, Christian. 2018. Die Lücke in der Welt: Eine Ideengeschichte der Leere im frühneuzeitlichen Frankreich. Epistemata Philosophie, 591. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann. ISBN 978-3-8260-6374-9.
  • Ribas, Albert. 2008. Biografía del vacío: Su historia filosófica y científica desde la Antigüedad a la Edad Moderna. Ed. quarta. Barcinonae: Sunya. ISBN 978-846-1239-252.
  • Talavera, Laura, et Mario Farías. 1990. El vacío y sus aplicaciones. Mexici: La Ciencia para Todos. ISBN 978-968-16-7032-0.
  • Thuan, Trinh Xuan. 2016. La Plénitude du Vide. Lutetiae: Albin Michel. ISBN 9782226326423.
  • Wey, Karin, et Ralph Jürgen Peters. 2002. "Geschichte der Vakuumtechnik." Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis 14 (3): 180–83. ISSN 0947-076X. doi:10.1002/1522-2454(200206)14:3<180::AID-VIPR180>3.0.CO;2-A.
  • Wutz, Max, Hermann Adam, Wilhelm Walcher, et Karl Jousten. 2000. Handbuch Vakuumtechnik: Theorie und Praxis. Vieweg. ISBN 3-528-54884-3.

Nexus externiRecensere

  Vide Vacuum in Victionario.