Branchiae (Graece βράγχια, ex βράγχιον 'pinna'[1]) sunt organum respiratorium, in multis organismis aquaticis inventum, quod oxygenium dissolutum ex aqua extrahit, carboniique dioxidum emittit. Branchiae nonnullarum specierum, sicut paguroideorum, respirationem in terra sinunt, dummodo humidae maneant. Microscopica branchiarum structura magnam aream superficialem ad circumiecta externa offert.

Branciae Thunnini.
Branchiae Carassii carassii per microscopium visae.
Rubrae huius Cyprini carpionis branchiae propter defectionem natalem in operculo videri possunt.
In Pleurobranchaea meckelii viva, branchiae (recte in molluscis ctenidium appellatae) in hoc dextri animalis lateris conspectu videtur.
Branchiae mutatae sinunt ut Coenobita clypeatus (familiae Coenobitidarum) in circumiectis humidis habitent.

Nonnullis insectis aquaticis exceptis, filamenta lamellaeque sanguinem vel fluidum coelomicum continent, ex quo gasia per valla tenuia permutantur. Sanguis oxygenium ad alias corporis partes portat. Carboni dioxidum ex sanguine per tenuem branchiarum textum in aquam transit. Branchiae, vel organa branchiarum similia, in variis corporis partibus sita, inveniuntur in variia animalium aquaticorum gregibus, inter quae mollusca, crustacea, insecta, pisces, amphibia sunt. Animalibus maritimis et semiterrestrialibus, sicut brachyuris et oxudercinis, sunt receptacula branchiarum, in quibus aquam recondunt, ut oxygenio dissoluto utantur cum in terra degant.

HistoriaRecensere

Galenus observavit pisces multa foramina habere, tam magna ut gasia admittant, sed tam parva ut aquam cohibeant. Plinius docuit pisces per branchias spirare, sed commemoravit Aristotelem aliter credidisse.[2]

FunctioRecensere

Multa animalia aquatica et microscopica, et nonnulla animalia maiora sed inertia, satis oxygenii per omne eorum corporum superficiem absorbere possunt, et ergo apte sine branchiis respirant; organismi autem multipliciores vel minus inertes plerumque branchias requirunt. Multa invertebrata, et adeo amphibia, ambo superficie corporis branchiisque ut gasia permutent utuntur.[3]

Branchiae plerumque in tenuissimis textus filamentis, lamellis, ramis, vel tenuibus processibus caespitosis consistunt, in rebus quibus est superficies multo plicata, ad aream superficialem augendam. Subtilis branchiarum ingenium fieri potest quia aqua circumiacens subsidium praebet. Ad permutationem gasiorum facilius reddendam, sanguis vel aliud fluidum corporeum cum superficie respiratoria intime contingere debet.[3]

Nexus interni

NotaeRecensere

  1. "Branchia," Oxford English Dictionary, ed. secunda (Oxoniae: Oxford University Press, 1989).
  2. James Knapton, John Knapton, et al., in Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, ed. Ephraim Chambers (1728).
  3. 3.0 3.1 Dorit, R. L.; Walker, W. F.; Barnes, R. D. (1991). Zoology. Saunders College Publishing. pp. 273-276. ISBN 978-0-03-030504-7 .

BibliographiaRecensere

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Nexus externiRecensere