Nucleus accessorius nervi oculomotorii

Nucleus accessorius nervi oculomotorii
Cognitores
MeSH D065839
Anatomia
Mesencephalon
Mesencephali sectio, supra colliculi superiores. Uterque nucleus accessiorius paulo antea planitiem nucleorum oculomotoriorum locatus est.
Nuclei oculomotorii
Sectio fere horizontalis trunci encephali cum nucleis oculomotoriis sectis: 1 Nucleus (Nc.) dorsalis posterior, 1' Nc. ventralis posterior, 2 Nc. dorsalis anterior, 2' Nc. ventralis anterior, 3 Nc. centralis, 4 Nucleus Edinger et Westphal, 5 Nc. anterointernus, 6 Nc. anteroexternus, 8 Fibrae decussantes, 9 Nervus trochlearis cum 9' eius nucleo, 10 ventriculus tertius, M linea mediana

Nucleus accessorius nervi oculomotorii sive Nucleus Edinger et Westphal est nucleus nervi oculomotorius fibrarum nervalium efferentium, musculos oculi internos gubernandi. Conexiones sunt pars parasympathica systematis nervosi autonomici, cuius fibrae praeganglionares musculos et sphincterem pupillae et ciliarem innverant.

Refertur non raro nucleus Edinger et Westphal ad nucleo accessorio neurona proxima non praeganglionaria non ganglion ciliare sed medullam spinalem, nucleum raphes dorsalem, nucleos septales, aream hypothalamicam lateralem, corporis amygdaloidei nucleum centralem, et alia adeuntes[1][2].

Contra neurona praeganglionaria classica, quibus enzymum cholini acetyltransferasis inest, neurona non praeganglionaria nuclei Edinger et Westphal varia neuropeptida, ut urocortinum et transcriptum cocaino amphetaminoque gubernatum (Anglice: CART) continent[3].

Anno 2008 gregem non praeganglionarium et neuropeptida continentium neuronorum in fluvium neuronalem subgrisei perioculomotorium, abbreviatum pIIISG, renominari propositum est[4].

Postea tamen nomenclaturam definitivam determinatur: Neurona praeganglionaria oculomotoria intra nucleo Edinger-Westphal EWpg referenda, at neurona neuropeptida continentia (non praeganglionaria) nucleus Edinger et Westphal centro proiciens EWcp nominanda sunt[1].

AnatomiaRecensere

SitusRecensere

Nucleorum par in mesencephalo rostrali, colliculi superioris planitie, nucleis oculomotoriis principalibus posterius, aquaeductui mesencephali anterius locatum. Intra truncum encephali est nucleorum parasympathicorum nucleus maxime rostralis.

Conexiones neuronalesRecensere

Nucleus accessorius a retina et dein a nucleo olivario praetectali fibras afferentes recipit. Emittit nucleus axona sua praeganglionaria in ganglion ciliare, quo translatio in neurona postganglionaria fit, et illae una cum afferentibus hic non translatis ex ganglioni cervicali superiori ascendentibus in oculos currunt, quo eae ad musculos oculi internos accedunt.

PhysiologiaRecensere

Nucleus Edinger et Westphal fibras parasympathicas praeganglionares in oculum mittit[5], pupillam constringens, lentem accomodans, oculos ambos convergens.

Praeterea nucleum munera neurona et specula magnitudinis pupillae vultu tristi viso habere suspicatum est: Viso vultu tristi enim, hominum investigatorum pupillae vel dilatationem vel constrictionem ostendunt, vero cognitivam tristis interpretationem vultus "praevidens"[6], ac interpretationem facultatis empathiae permittens[7].

EponymusRecensere

Emanavit nuclei Edinger et Westphal nomen de Ludovico Edinger Francofurti ad Moenum, qui anno 1885 nucleum in foetu primus demonstravit, et de Carolo Friderico Otho Westphal Berolini, qui anno 1887 nucleum in adulto quoque demonstravit.

PinacothecaRecensere

NotaeRecensere

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kozicz T., Bittencourt J. C., et al. (Iun 2011). "The Edinger-Westphal Nucleus: A Historical, Structural, and Functional Perspective on a Dichotomous Terminology". The journal of comparative neurology 519 (8): 1413-34 
  2. Dos Santos Júnior E. D., Da Silva A. V. (Oct 2015). "The Centrally Projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus--I: Efferents in the Rat Brain". Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 68: 22-38 
  3. Kozicz T. (2003). "Neurons Colocalizing Urocortin and Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript Immunoreactivities Are Induced by Acute Lipopolysaccharide Stress in the Edinger-Westphal Nucleus in the Rat". Neuroscience 116 (2): 315-20 
  4. May P. J., Reiner A. J., Ryabinin A. E. (Mar 2008). "Comparison of the Distributions of Urocortin-Containing and Cholinergic Neurons in the Perioculomotor Midbrain of the Cat and Macaque". The journal of comparative neurology 507 (3): 1300-16 
  5. McDougal D. H., Gamlin P. D. (Ian 2015). "Autonomic Control of the Eye". Comprehensive physiology 5 (1): 439-73 
  6. Harrison N. A., Singer T., et al. (Iun 2006). "Pupillary Contagion: Central Mechanisms Engaged in Sadness Processing". Social cognitive and affective neuroscience 1 (1): 5-17 
  7. Harrison N. A., Wilson C. E., Critchley H. D. (Nov 2007). "Processing of Observed Pupil Size Modulates Perception of Sadness and Predicts Empathy". Emotion 7 (4): 724-9 

BibliographiaRecensere

Nexus externiRecensere