Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (natus Rolihlahla Mandela, IPA |xolíɬaɬa mandɛ̂ːla|, Mvezo in vico 18 Iulii 1918; mortuus 5 Decembris 2013), usitate Nelson Mandela appellatus, fuit agitator Africanus Australis contra apartheid et rassismum, qui munus praesidis Africae Australis ab anno 1994 ad annum 1999 primus sustinuit, cuius civitatis fuit primum caput nigrum et primum in comitiis plene democraticis electum. Eius administratio reliquias coactae rassarum separationis intente amovere conabatur, reconciliatione dissensionis? augendo. Ille, ideologice nationalista Africanus et socialista, praeses Congressus Nationalis Africani ab 1991 ad 1997 meruit.

Wikidata Nelson Mandela
Res apud Vicidata repertae:
Nelson Mandela: imago
Nelson Mandela: imago
Nelson Mandela: subscriptio
Nelson Mandela: subscriptio
Nativitas: 18 Iulii 1918; Mvezo
Obitus: 5 Decembris 2013; Houghton Estate
Patria: Africa Australis
Nomen nativum: Rolihllahla Mandela

Familia

Genitores: Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa; Nosekeni Fanny
Coniunx: Evelyn Mase, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, Graça Machel
Proles: Makgatho Mandela, Makaziwe Mandela, Zenani Mandela-Dlamini, Thembekile Mandela, Zindzi Mandela

Memoria

Sepultura: Qunu
Vide etiam paginam discretivam: Mandela (discretiva).
Nelson Mandela iuvenis, circa annum 1937.

Anno 1993, Praemium Nobelianum pacis componendae de conatu contra apartheid accepit. Anno 1996, Constitutionem novam cum parlamento decrevit, atque allevationi paupertatis et aequalitati legitimae favit. Etiam Praemium Sacharov anno 1988 et Praemium Praesidis pro Libertate anno 2002 accepit.

Mandela fuit alumnus universitatum Fort Hare (e qua expulsus erat) et Witwatersrand. Gradus insuper eruditionis ab universitatibus Africae Australis et Londiniensis epistularum gratia meruit. Ante praefecturam, Mandela, generum humanorum segregationem vehementer recusans cum operistitio, Umkhonto we Sizwe, armatam Congressus Nationalis Africani catervam, duxit; quo facto, iudices rei publicae eum multorum maleficiorum condemnaverunt. Ante generis occidium Sharpeville, Mandela inviolentiae modo fuit de motu. Secundum leges damnationis et decretum iudicum, Mandela in carcerem coniectus est, ubi viginti septem annos mansit, annis in Insula Robben non exclusis. Ad extremum, notiones Mahatma Gandhi eum et suos moverunt.[1][2] Mandela fuit in conloquio Novi Delhii dierum 29 Ianuarii et 30 Ianuarii quod centensimum festum diem anniversarium introductionis ab Gandhi satyagrahae in Africa Australi celebravit.[3]

In Africa Australi saepe reverenter Madiba (nomen gentile) et Tata 'pater' appellatur.

Pelliculae Mandela dicatae recensere

   
Nelson Mandela cellula in carcere in Insula Robben.

Notae recensere

  1. "Mandela, Nelson: The Sacred Warrior: Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century," Time Magazine, 3 Ianuarii 2000.
  2. Surendra Bhana, The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914 (Vahed et Goolam 2005), p. 149.
  3. Bhalla, Nita (29 Ianuarii 2007). "Mandela calls for Gandhi's non-violence approach". Reuters .

Bibliographia recensere

  • Barber, James 2004. Mandela's World: The International Dimension of South Africa's Political Revolution 1990–99. Athenis in Ohio: Ohio University Press. ISBN 978-0-8214-1566-5.
  • Barnard, Rita. 2014. "Introduction." The Cambridge Companion to Nelson Mandela, ed. Rita Barnard, 1–26. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-01311-7.
  • Battersby, John. 2011. "Afterword: Living Legend, Living Statue." Mandela: The Authorised Biography, ed. Anthony Sampson, 587–610. Londinii: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-743797-9.
  • Benneyworth, Garth. 2011. "Armed and Trained: Nelson Mandela's 1962 Military Mission as Commander in Chief of Umkhonto we Sizwe and Provenance for his Buried Makarov Pistol." South African Historical Journal 63 (1): 78–101. doi:10.1080/02582473.2011.549375 S2cid 144616007.
  • Benson, Mary. 1986. Nelson Mandela: The Man and the Movement. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-008941-7.
  • Bezdrob, Anne Marie du Preez. The Nelson Mandela Story. Samoja Books. ISBN 0-620-36570-6.
  • Boehmer, Elleke. 2005. "Postcolonial Terrorist: The Example of Nelson Mandela." Parallax 11 (4): 46–55. doi:10.1080/13534640500331666 S2cid 144267205. Textus interretialis.
  • Boehmer, Elleke. 2008. Nelson Mandela: A Very Short Introduction. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280301-6.
  • Bromley, Roger. 2014. "'Magic Negro', Saint or Comrade: Representations of Nelson Mandela in Film." Altre Modernità 12: 40–58.
  • Broun, Kenneth S. 2012. Saving Nelson Mandela: The Rivonia Trial and the Fate of South Africa. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-974022-2.
  • Denenberg, Barry. Nelson Mandela: No Easy Walk To Freedom.
  • Ellis, Stephen 2011. "The Genesis of the ANC's Armed Struggle in South Africa 1948–1961." Journal of Southern African Studies 37 (4): 657–676 doi:10.1080/03057070.2011.592659. HDL 2263/19620. S2cid 144061623.
  • Ellis, Stephen. 2016. "Nelson Mandela, the South African Communist Party and the origins of Umkhonto we Sizwe." Cold War History 16 (1): 1–18. doi:10.1080/14682745.2015.1078315. S2cid 155994044.
  • Forster, Dion. 2014. "Mandela and the Methodists: Faith, Fallacy and Fact." Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae 40: 87–115.
  • Freund, Bill. 2014. "The Shadow of Nelson Mandela, 1918–2013." African Political Economy 41 (140): 292–96. doi:10.1080/03056244.2014.883111. S2cid 153570087.
  • Glad, Betty, et Robert Blanton. 1997. "F. W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela: A Study in Cooperative Transformational Leadership." Presidential Studies Quarterly 27 (3): 565–90. JSTOR 27551769.
  • Guiloineau, Jean, et Joseph Rowe. 2002. Nelson Mandela: The Early Life of Rolihlahla Madiba. Berkeleiae: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-55643-417-4. Textus apud archvum.org. Pagina 9.
  • Herbst, Jeffrey. 2003. "The Nature of South African Democracy: Political Dominance and Economic Inequality." In The Making and Unmaking of Democracy: Lessons from History and World Politics, ed. Theodore K. Rabb et Ezra N. Suleiman, 206–224. Londinii: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-93381-0.
  • Hoobler, Dorothy, et Thomas Hoobler. Mandela: The Man, The Struggle, The Triumph.
  • Houston, Gregory, et Yvonne Muthien. 2000. "Democracy and Governance in Transition." In Democracy and Governance Review: Mandela's Legacy 1994–1999, ed. Yvonne Muthien, Meshack Khosa, et Bernard Magubane, 37–68. Praetoriae: Human Sciences Research Council Press. ISBN 978-0-7969-1970-0.
  • Hutton, Barbara. 1994. Robben Island: Symbol of Resistance. Bellville: Pearson South Africa. ISBN 978-0-86877-417-6.
  • Juckes, Tim. 1995. Opposition in South Africa: The Leadership of Matthews, Nelson Mandela, and Stephen Biko. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers.
  • Kalumba, Kibujjo M. 1995. "The Political Philosophy of Nelson Mandela: A Primer." Journal of Social Philosophy 26 (3): 161–71. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9833.1995.tb00092.x.
  • Lodge, Tom. 2006. Mandela: A Critical Life. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-921935-3.
  • Lukhele, Francis. 2012. "Post-Prison Nelson Mandela: A 'Made-in-America Hero.'" Canadian Journal of African Studies 46 (2): 289–301. doi:10.1080/00083968.2012.702088. S2cid=142631031.
  • Mafela, Munzhedzi James. 2008. "The Revelation of African Culture in Long Walk to Freedom." In Indigenous Biography and Autobiography, ed. Anna Haebich, Frances Peters-Little, et Peter Read, 99–107. Sydneii: Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University. Textus interretialis. Archivum, 24 Iulii 2013.
  • Mandela, Nelson. 1994. Long Walk to Freedom Volume I: 1918–1962. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-7540-8723-6.
  • Mandela, Nelson. 1994. Long Walk to Freedom Volume II: 1962–1994. Londinii: BBC AudioBooks et Time Warner Books. ISBN 978-0-7540-8724-3.
  • Mangcu, Xolela. 2013. "Retracing Nelson Mandela through the Lineage of Black Political Thought." Transition 112 (112): 101–116. doi:10.2979/transition.112.101. S2cid 150631478.
  • Meer, Fatima. 1988. Higher than Hope: The Authorized Biography of Nelson Mandela. Londinii: Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 978-0-241-12787-2.
  • Meredith, Martin. (1999) 2010. Mandela: A Biography. Novi Eboraci: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-832-1. Textus apud archive.org.
  • Muthien, Yvonne, Meshak Khosa, et Bernard Magubane. 2000. "Democracy and Governance in Transition." In Democracy and Governance Review: Mandela's Legacy 1994–1999, ed. Yvonne Muthien, Meshack Khosa, et Bernard Magubane, 361–74. Praetoriae: Human Sciences Research Council Press. ISBN 978-0-7969-1970-0.
  • Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Sabelo J. 2014. "From a 'Terrorist' to Global Icon: A Critical Decolonial Ethical Tribute to Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela of South Africa." Third World Quarterly 35 (6): 905–21. doi:10.1080/01436597.2014.907703. S2cid 144338285.
  • Nelson, Steven. 2014. "Nelson Mandela's Two Bodies." Transitio 116 (116): 130–42. doi:10.2979/transition.116.130. S2cid 154241514.
  • Oppenheim, Claire E. 2012. "Nelson Mandela and the Power of Ubuntu." Religions 3 (2): 369–88. doi:10.3390/rel3020369.
  • Read, James H. 2010. "Leadership and power in Nelson Mandela's Long Walk to Freedom." Journal of Power 3 (3): 317–39. doi:10.1080/17540291.2010.524792. S2cid=143804607.
  • Sampson, Anthony. (1999) 2011. Mandela: The Authorised Biography. Londinii: HarperCollins.011. ISBN 978-0-00-743797-9.
  • Smith, Charlene. Mandela: In Celebration of a Great Life.
  • Smith, David James. 2010. Young Mandela. Londinii: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-85524-8.
  • Soudien, Crain. 2015. "Nelson Mandela, Robben Island and the Imagination of a New South Africa." Journal of Southern African Studies 41 (2): 353–66. doi:10.1080/03057070.2015.1012915. S2cid 143225875
  • Suttner, Raymond. 2007. "(Mis)Understanding Nelson Mandela." African Historical Review 39 (2): 107–130. doi:10.1080/17532520701786202. S2cid 218645921.
  • Suttner, Raymond. 2014. "Nelson Mandela's Masculinities." African Identities 12 (3–4): 342–56. doi:10.1080/14725843.2015.1009623. S2cid=145448829.
  • Suttner, Raymond. 2016. "'I Was Not Born With a Hunger to Be Free': Nelson Mandela's Early Journeys towards Political Awareness." Journal of Asian and African Studies 51 (1): 17–31. doi:10.1177/0021909614541973. S2cid 144447985.
  • Tomaselli, Keyan, et Ruth Tomaselli. 2004. "The Media and Mandela." Safundi: The Journal of South African and American Studies 4 (2): 1–10. doi:10.1080/17533170300404204. S2cid 144534323.
  • Villa-Vicencio, Charles. 1996. The Spirit of Freedom. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Alia recensere

Nexus interni

Nexus externi recensere

  Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Nelson Mandela spectant.
  Vicicitatio habet citationes quae ad Nelson Mandela spectant.