Hic imparata opera mihi sunt. Noli mutare, nisi ego te rogem!

Formula:Iulio-Claudiana DynastiaRecensere

Dynastiae Imperii Romani
Iulio-Claudiana Dynastia
   Natural - Iulia Caesaris
   Adoptive - Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar, Agrippa Postumus, Tiberius
   Natural - Iulius Caesar Drusus
   Adoptive - Germanicus
   Natural - Iulia Drusilla
   Adoptive - Tiberius Gemellus
   Natural - Claudia Antonia, Claudia Octavia, Britannicus
   Adoptive - Nero
   Natural - Claudia Augusta


Publii Vergilii Maronis Aeneis
  Di: Venus - Iuno - Iuppiter

Personae: Aeneas - Dido - Turnus - Pallas
Loci: Troia - Sicilia - Karthago - Italia


Annus est tempus inter duo eventa repitita quae orbitae Terrae circum Solem constant. Etiam applicare ad ullam planetam potest: exemplo, "Annus Martius" est annus Marti.

Seasonal yearRecensere

A seasonal year is the time between successive recurrences of a seasonal event such as the flooding of a river, the migration of a species of bird, the flowering of a species of plant, the first frost, or the first scheduled game of a certain sport. All of these events can have wide variations of more than a month from year to year.

Calendar yearRecensere

A calendar year is the time between two dates with the same name in a calendar.

Solar calendars usually aim to predict the seasons, but because the length of individual seasonal years varies significantly, they instead use an astronomical year as a surrogate. For example, the ancient Egyptians used the heliacal rising of Sirius to predict the flooding of the Nile.

The Gregorian calendar aims to keep the vernal equinox on or close to March 21; hence it follows the vernal equinox year. The average length of its year is 365.2425 days.

Among solar calendars in wide use today, the Persian calendar is one of the most precise. Rather than being based on numerical rules, the Persian year begins on the day (for the time zone of Tehran) on which the vernal equinox actually falls, as determined by precise astronomical computations.

No astronomical year has an integer number of days or lunar months, so any calendar that follows an astronomical year must have a system of intercalation such as leap years.

In the formerly used Julian calendar, the average length of a year was 365.25 days. This is still used as a convenient time unit in astronomy, see below.

Anni astronomiciRecensere

Annus SiderealisRecensere

Annus siderealis is the time for the Earth to complete one revolution of its orbit, as measured in a fixed frame of reference (such as the fixed stars, Latin sidus). Its duration in SI days of 86,400 SI seconds each is on average:

365.256 363 051 days (365 d 6 h 9 min 9 s) (at the epoch J2000.0 = 2000 January 1 12:00:00 TT).

Annus TropicalisRecensere

A tropical year is the time for the Earth to complete one revolution with respect to the framework provided by the intersection of the ecliptic (the plane of the orbit of the Earth) and the plane of the equator (the plane perpendicular to the rotation axis of the Earth). Because of the precession of the equinoxes, this framework moves slowly westward along the ecliptic with respect to the fixed stars (with a period of about 26,000 tropical years); as a consequence, the Earth completes this year before it completes a full orbit as measured in a fixed reference frame. Therefore a tropical year is shorter than the sidereal year. The exact length of a tropical year depends on the chosen starting point: for example the vernal equinox year is the time between successive vernal equinoxes. The mean tropical year (averaged over all ecliptic points) is:

365.242 189 67 days (365 d 5 h 48 min 45 s) (at the epoch J2000.0).

Annus BesselianisRecensere

The Besselian year is a tropical year that starts when the fictitious mean Sun reaches an ecliptic longitude of 280°. This is currently on or close to 1 January. It is named after the 19th century German astronomer and mathematician Friedrich Bessel. An approximate formula to compute the current time in Besselian years from the Julian day is:

B = 2,000 + (JD - 2,451,544.53)/365.242189

Variation in the length of the year and the dayRecensere

The exact length of an astronomical year changes over time. The main sources of this change are:

  1. The precession of the equinoxes changes the position of astronomical events with respect to the apsides of Earth's orbit. An event moving toward perihelion recurs with a decreasing period from year to year; an event moving toward aphelion recurs with an increasing period from year to year.
  2. The gravitational influence of the Moon and planets changes the shape of the Earth's orbit.

Tidal drag between the Earth and the Moon and Sun increases the length of the day and of the month. This in turn depends on factors such as continental rebound and sea level rise.

It is also suspected that changes in the effective mass of the sun, caused by nuclear fusion, could have a significant impact on the earth year over time.


Index obiectorum systematis solaris secundum radium, arranged in descending order of mean volumetric radius. Hic index haud completus est; solem, planetas, nonullas satellites, et alios obiectos notos habet.

Hic index ordinem dissimilis indici obiectorum systematis solaris secundum massam habet quod nonnullae obiectes densitatem maiorem quam alterae habent. Exempla gratia: Uranus maior diametro quam Neptunus sed minor massa est. Quamquam Ganymedes et Titan sunt maiores quam Mercurius, minus quam massam dimidiam eius habent.

Several new trans-Neptunian objects have been discovered of significant size. While their radius remains provisional due to the recency of discovery, and is often expressed as a range, the approximate locations in this list are shown.

Nexus ExterniRecensere