Temperamentum in psychologia plerumque est hominis indoles quae mores in biologia conditos efficiunt, ab educatione, rationibus aestimationum, habituque liberae. Nonnulli investigatores temperamentum cum iustis morum proprietatibus dynamicis consociant, sicut cum energia, mutabilitate, certorum stimulorum responsis, animique motuum propensitate.[1] Proprietates temperamenti, praecipue neuroticismus, sociabilitas, et impulsivitas, exemplaria distincta in adultis exhibent, sed notabilissimae et maxime investigatae in pueris sunt. Infantuli per temperamentum usitate describuntur, sed investigationes longitudinalis annis 1920 confirmare coeperunt temperamentum rem omnino per vitam stabilem esse.[2]

Ioannes Pavlov temperamentum investigavit.
Tabula duodecim temperamentorum secundum Irinam Trofimova, una ex multis rationibus ad temperamentum in genera describendum adhibitis (Anglice signata).

Constat inter eruditos temperamentum bene definitum esse, sed multae rationes temperamenti in genera describendi propositae sunt, consensu carente.[3][4] Notio temperamenti olim pars theoriae quattuor humorum erat, cum eorum quattuor temperamentis congruentibus.

Haec notio historica a philosophis, psychologis, psychiatris, et psycho-physiologis ex primis scientiae psychologicae temporibus exploratum est, per theorias ab Immanuele Kant, Hermanno Lotze, Ioanne Pavlov, Carolo Jung, Gerardo Heymans, aliisque propositas.

Investigatores indicia biologicorum personalitatis fundamentorum petentes nuperrime coniunctiones inter temperamentum et systemata neurotransmittorum[5][4][6][7] atque ingenium (hic progressivae personalitatis proprietates definitum) porro scrutati sunt; congruentiae autem biologicae sine ulla controversia vix confirmatae sunt.

Nexus interni

NotaeRecensere

  1. Rusalov et Trofimova 2007.
  2. Friedman, et Schustack. 2016.
  3. Kagan.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Trofimova 2016.
  5. Depue et Fu 2012.
  6. Trofimova et Robbins 2016.
  7. Trofimova 2018.

BibliographiaRecensere

  • Carey, William B. 1997. Understanding Your Child's Temperament. Novi Eboraci: Macmillan. ISBN 1-4134-7028-9.
  • Asendorpf, Jens B. 2004. Psychologie der Persönlichkeit. Berolini: Springer. ISBN 3-540-66230-8.
  • Dalgalarrondo, Paulo. 2000. Psicopatologia e semiologia dos transtornos mentais. Porto Alegre: Artes médicas. ISBN 85-7307-595-3.
  • Depue, R., et Y. Fu. 2012. "Neurobiology and neurochemistry of temperament in adults." In Handbook of Temperament, ed. M. Zentner et R. Shiner, 368-399. Novi Eboraci: Guilford Publications.
  • Diamond, S. 1957. Personality and temperament. Novi Eboraci: Harper.
  • Eysenck, H. J. 1990. "Biological dimensions of personality." In Handbook of personality theory and research, ed. L. A. Pervin, 244–76). Novi Eboraci: Guilford.
  • Eysenck, H. J., et M. W. Eysenck. 1985. Personality and individual differences. Novi Eboraci: Plenum.
  • Friedman, Howard S., et Miriam W. Schustack. 2016. Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research. Ed. 6a. Boston: Pearson Education ISBN 9780205997930. ISBN 0205997937.
  • Kagan, Jerome, cum Nancy Snidman, Doreen Arcus, et J. Steven Reznick. 1994. Galen's prophecy: temperament in human nature. Novi Eboraci: Basic Books. ISBN 0465084052.
  • Kagan Jerome, et N. C. Snidman. 2004. The long shadow of temperament. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: Harvard University Press.
  • Kagan, Jerome. "Temperament." Encyclopedia of Early Childhood Development. Encyclopedia of Early Childhood Development. Editio interretialis.
  • Kohnstamm, G. A., J. E. Bates, et M. K. Rothbart, eds. 1989. Temperament in childhood. Oxoniae: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Neville, Helen F., cum Diane Clark Johnson. 2015. Temperament Tools: Working with Your Child's Inborn Traits. Seattle: Parenting Press. ISBN 1936903253. ISBN 9781936903252.
  • Rusalov, V. M., et I. N. Trofimova. 2007. Structure of Temperament and Its Measurement. Torontia: Psychological Services Press.
  • Shick, Lyndall. "Understanding Temperament: Strategies for Creating Family Harmon." ISBN 1-884734-32-4.
  • Seifer, R. A., A. J. Sameroff, L. C. Barrette, et E. Krafchuk. 1994. "Infant temperament measured by multiple observations and mother report." Child Development 65 (5): 1478–90. doi:10.2307/1131512. JSTOR 1131512. PMID 7982363.
  • Thomas, Chess, et Birch. 1968. Temperament and Behavior Disorders in Children. Novi Eboraci: New York University Press.
  • Trofimova, I. N. 2016. "The interlocking between functional aspects of activities and a neurochemical model of adult temperament." In Individual Differences, Social and Environmental Influences and Impact on Quality of Life, ed. M. C. Arnold, 77–147. Novi Eboraci: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Trofimova, I. N. 2018. "Functionality vs dimensionality in psychological taxonomies, and a puzzle of emotional valence." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373 (1744): 20170167. doi:10.1098/rstb.2017.0167. PMID 29483351. PMC 5832691.
  • Trofimova, I. N., et T. W. Robbins. 2016. "Temperament and arousal systems: a new synthesis of differential psychology and functional neurochemistry." Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 64: 382–402. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.03.008k PMID 26969100. Editio interretialis.
  • Zeanah C. H., et N. A. Fox. 2004. "Temperament and Attachment Disorders." Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 33 (1): 32—41.

Nexus externiRecensere

  Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad temperamenta spectant.