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Quapropter rogamus ut corrigas praecipue introductionem, formam, nexusque extra et intra Vicipaediam.
Manes (lingua Persica Media Māni ; Syriace Mānī; Koine Μάνης), etiam Manichaeus (Graece Μανιχαίος, a Syriaco ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī ḥayyā 'Mani vivus') (circa 216–274), Iranianus, fuit propheta et conditor Manichaeismi, religionis gnosticae Antiquitatis Posterioris, olim multo divulgata, nunc exstincta. Manes natus est in, vel prope, Seleuciam et Ctesiphontem Babyloniae sub regno Parthorum (Iraquiae), eo tempore parte Imperii Parthorum. Eius operum maiorum, sex Aramaica Syriaca, et septimum, Sapori I regi imperiali dicatum, patrio sermone Persico medio conscriptum est. Supplicium Manete dedit Rex Bahram I, Saporis I nepos, in Imperio Sassanidarum.
- Mary Boyce, Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (Routledge, 2001), 111: "He was Iranian, of noble Parthian blood."
- Warwick Ball, Rome in the East: The Transformation of an Empire (Routledge, 2001), 437: "Manichaeism was a syncretic religion, proclaimed by the Iranian Prophet Mani."
- Werner Sundermann, Mani, the founder of the religion of Manicheism in the 3rd century CE," Iranica (Sundermann, 2009): According to the Fehrest, Mani was of Arsacid stock on both his father’s and his mother’s sides, at least if the readings al-ḥaskāniya (Mani’s father) and al-asʿāniya (Mani’s mother) are corrected to al-aškāniya and al-ašḡāniya (ed. Flügel, 1862, p. 49, ll. 2 and 3) respectively. The forefathers of Mani’s father are said to have been from Hamadan and so perhaps of Iranian origin (ed. Flügel, 1862, p. 49, 5–6). The Chinese Compendium, which makes the father a local king, maintains that his mother was from the house Jinsajian, explained by Henning as the Armenian Arsacid family of Kamsarakan (Henning, 1943, p. 52, n. 4 = 1977, II, p. 115). The historicity of this tradition is assumed by most, but the possibility that Mani’s noble Arsacid background is legendary cannot be ruled out (cf. Scheftelowitz, 1933, pp. 403–404). . . . In any case, it is characteristic that Mani took pride in his origin from time-honored Babel, but never claimed affiliation to the Iranian upper class."
- Alessandro Bausani, Religion in Iran: from Zoroaster to Baha'ullah (Bibliotheca Persica Press, 2000), 80: "We are now certain that Mani was of Iranian stock on both his father's and his mother's side."
- I. J. S. Taraporewala, Manichaeism (Iran Chamber Society).
- W. B. Henning, The Book of Giants, BSOAS, 11, pars 1, 1943, pp. 52–74: "Mani, who was brought up and spent most of his life in a province of the Persian empire, and whose mother belonged to a famous Parthian family, did not make any use of the Iranian mythological tradition. There can no longer be any doubt that the Iranian names of Sām, Narīmān, etc., that appear in the Persian and Sogdian versions of the Book of the Giants, did not figure in the original edition, written by Mani in the Syriac language."
- Asmussen, Jes Peter, comp. 1975. Manichaean Literature: Representative Texts, Chiefly from Middle Persian and Parthian Writings. Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints. ISBN 9780820111414.
- Böhlig, Alexander. 1992. Manichäismus. Theologische Realenzyklopädie 22 (1992): 25–45.
- Henning, W. B. 1943. The Book of the Giants.
- Maalouf, Amin. 2007. The Gardens of Light [Les Jardins de Lumière]. Liber ex Francica conversus a Dorothy S. Blair. Novi Eboraci: Interlink Publishing Group. ISBN 1566562481.
- Acta Archelai, www4.nau.edu
- "Mani and Manichaeism in the J. R. Ritman Library," www.ritmanlibrary.nl
- "Manichaeist art," depts.washington.edu (University of Washington)