Beniaminus Franklinius Norris

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Beniaminus Franklinius Norris, Jr. (5 Martii 187025 Octobris 1902) fuit scriptor mythistoriarum Americanus Temporis Progressivi, qui plerumque in genere naturalistico scripsit.[1][2][3][4][5] Inter sua opera notabilia sunt McTeague[6][7][8][9] (1899), The Octopus: A Story of California[10][11][12] (1901), et The Pit[13][14] (1903).

Beniaminus Franklinius Norris, Jr.

Beniaminus Franklinius Norris natus est Sicagi Illinoesiae anno 1870. Mortuus est ob peritonitem post appendicem ruptam Franciscopoli die 25 Octobris 1902, anno aetatis suae tricensimo secundo.[15][16] The Epic of the Wheat, trilogia proposita, ergo infecta est.[17] Sepultus est corpus in Coemeterio Mountain View Quercupoli Californiae.


  • 1892. Yvernelle, J. B. Lippincott Company.
  • 1898. Moran of the "Lady Letty": A Story of Adventure Off the California Coast, Doubleday & McClure Co.
  • 1899. McTeague: A Story of San Francisco, Doubleday & McClure Co.
  • 1899. Blix, Doubleday & McClure Co.
  • 1900. A Man's Woman, Doubleday & McClure Co.
  • 1901. The Octopus: A Story of California, Doubleday, Page & Co.
  • 1903. The Pit: A Story of Chicago, Doubleday, Page & Co.
  • 1903. A Deal in Wheat and Other Stories of the New and Old West, Doubleday, Page & Company.
  • 1906. A Joyous Miracle, Doubleday, Page & Company.
  • 1909. The Third Circle, John Lane Company.
  • 1914. Vandover and the Brute, Doubleday, Page & Company.[18]
  • 1931. Frank Norris of "The Wave." Stories & Sketches From the San Francisco Weekly, 1893 to 1897, The Westgate Press.
  • 1998. The Best Short Stories of Frank Norris, Ironweed Press Inc.
Fabulae breves
Non fictio
  • 1903. The Responsibilities of the Novelist, Doubleday, Page & Company.
  • 1956. The Letters of Frank Norris, The Book Club of California.
  • 1996. The Apprenticeship Writings of Frank Norris 1896–1898, American Philosophical Society.
Opera conversa
  • "Fifi," Leonis Faran, The Wave 16(4), 23 Ianuarii 1897.
  • "Not Guilty," Marcelli l'Heureux, The Wave 16(25), 19 Iunii 1897.
  • "Story of a Wall," Petri Loti, The Wave 16(35), 28 Augusti 1897.
  • "An Elopement," Ferdinandi Bloch, The Wave 16(52), 25 Decembris 1897.
Opera omnia
  • The Complete Works of Frank Norris, 4 Vol., P. F. Collier Sons Publishers, 1898–1903.
  • Complete Works of Frank Norris, 7 Vol., Doubleday, Page & Company, 1903.
  • The Collected Works of Frank Norris, 10 Vol., Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc., 1928.
  • Norris: Novels and Essays, Library of America, 1986.

Nexus interni


  1. Marius Biencourt, Une Influence du Naturalisme Français en Amérique: Frank Norris (Giard, 1933).
  2. Charles Child Walcutt, American Literary Naturalism, a Divided Stream (University of Minnesota Press, 1956).
  3. Richard Volney Chase, "Norris and Naturalism," in The American Novel and its Tradition (Doubleday, 1957).
  4. Marian Frances Pehowski, Darwinism and the Naturalistic Novel: J. P. Jacobsen, Frank Norris and Shimazaki Tōson (University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1973).
  5. Paul Civello, American Literary Naturalism and Its Twentieth-Century Transformations: Frank Norris, Ernest Hemingway, Don DeLillo (University of Georgia Press, 1994).
  6. Malcolm Cowley, "Naturalism's Terrible McTeague," New Republic 116 (May 1947).
  7. George W. Johnson, "The Frontier behind Frank Norris' McTeague," Huntington Library Quarterly 26(1), Nov. 1962.
  8. Thomas C. Ware, "'Gold to Airy Thinness Beat': The Midas Touch in Frank Norris's McTeague," Interpretations 13(1), 1981.
  9. Donna M. Campbell, "Frank Norris' 'Drama of a Broken Teacup': The Old Grannis-Miss Baker Plot in McTeague," American Literary Realism, 1870–1910, vol. 26(1), 1993.
  10. George Wilbur Meyer, "A New Interpretation of The Octopus," College English 4 (March 1943).
  11. Donald Pizer, "The Concept of Nature in Frank Norris' The Octopus," American Quarterly 14(1), 1962.
  12. Leigh Ann Litwiller Berte, "Mapping The Octopus: Frank Norris' Naturalist Geography," American Literary Realism 37(3), spring 2005.
  13. Owen Wister, The Pit—A Story of Chicago, The World's Work 5, November 1902/April 1903.
  14. Richard Allan Davison, "A Reading of Frank Norris's The Pit," in The Stoic Strain in American Literature (University of Toronto Press, 1979).
  15. "Death of Frank Norris". New York Times. 26 Octobris 1902 .
  16. Frederic Taber Cooper, "Frank Norris," The Bookman, December 1902.
  17. "Now it makes no difference when or where or how a writer stumbles upon the idea which is to serve as his central purpose. It may spring from his head at a moment's notice like Athena, full armored — as was the case with the late Frank Norris, who, as has often been told, came one morning to his publisher's office, pale and trembling all over with excitement, and gasping out, almost inarticulately, "I've got a big idea! A great big idea! The biggest idea ever!" It was the outlined scheme for his trilogy of the Epic of the Wheat—the trilogy which began with The Octopus and The Pit, and which poor Norris did not live to round out with The Wolf."—Cooper, Frederic Taber. "The Author's Purpose." In The Craftsmanship of Writing, Dodd, Mead & Company, 1920.
  18. Wyatt, Edith. "Vandover and the Brute." In Great Companions, D. Appleton & Company, 1917.


  • Åhnebrink, Lars. 1961. The Beginnings of Naturalism in American Fiction: A Study of the Works of Hamlin Garland, Stephen Crane, and Frank Norris. Russell & Russell.
  • Altenbernd, August Lynn. 1949. The Intellectual Currents in The Octopus: A Study of the Naturalism of Frank Norris. Ohio State University.
  • Anderson, Grace E. 1933. A Dictionary of Characters in the Novels of Frank Norris. University of Kansas).
  • Armes, William Dallam. 1902. Concerning the Work of the Late Frank Norris. Sunset 10 (December).
  • Bechter, Leslie G. 1939. Frank Norris: his Place in the Development of the American Novel. State University of Iowa.
  • Bender, Bert. 1999. Frank Norris on the Evolution and Repression of the Sexual Instinct. Nineteenth-Century Literature 54(1).
  • Benét, William Rose. 1942. Rereading The Pit. Saturday Review of Literature 25 Iulii.
  • Bixler, Paul H. 1934. Frank Norris's Literary Reputation. American Literature, 6(2).
  • Borus, Daniel H. 1989. Writing Realism: Howells, James, and Norris in the Mass Market. University of North Carolina Press.
  • Boyd, Jennifer. 1993. Frank Norris: Spatial Form and Narrative Time. Peter Lang Pub Inc.
  • Brooks, Van Wyck. 1952. "Frank Norris and Jack London." In The Confident Years: 1885–1915. E. P. Dutton & Co.
  • Brown, Deming Bronson. 1942. The Development of the Use of Symbolism in the Novels of Frank Norris. M.A. thesis, University of Washington.
  • Cargill, Oscar. 1941. Intellectual America. Macmillan Company.
  • Clarke, Robert Montgomery. 1932. Contemporary American Novelists: Frank Norris. M.A. thesis, Stanford University.
  • Clift, Denison Hailey. 1907. The Artist in Frank Norris. Pacific Monthly 16 (Martio).
  • Cooper, Frederic Taber. 1899. Frank Norris, Realist. The Bookman, November
  • Cooper, Frederic Taber. 1911. Frank Norris. In Some American Story Tellers. Henry Holt & Company.
  • Cowley, Malcolm. 1947. "Not Men": A Natural History of American Nauralism. Kenyon Review 9.
  • Crane, Warren Eugene. 1939. The Life and Works of Frank Norris as a Reflection of Historical and Literary Trends between 1890 and 1902. M.A. thesis, University of Washington.
  • Davison, Richard Allan. 1981. Frank Norris and the Arts of Social Criticism. American Literary Realism, 1870–1910, 14(1).
  • Dawson, Jon Falsarella. 2009. Transforming History: The Economic Context of Frank Norris's "A Deal in Wheat." Studies in American Naturalism 4(2).
  • Dillingham, William B. 1969. Frank Norris: Instinct and Art. University of Nebraska Press.
  • Dobie, Charles Caldwell. 1928. Frank Norris, or, up from Culture. The American Mercury, Aprili.
  • Frohock, Wilbur Merrill. 1968. Frank Norris. University of Minnesota Press.
  • Frye, Steven. 2007. Presley's Pretense: Irony and Epic Convention in Frank Norris' The Octopus. American Literary Realism 39(3).
  • Garland, Hamlin. 1903. The Work of Frank Norris. Critic 42 (Martio).
  • Geismar, Maxwell. 1954. Frank Norris and the Brute. In Rebels and Ancestors: A Critical Study of Frank Norris, Stephen Crane, Jack London, Ellen Glasgow & Theodore Dreiser. W. H. Allen.
  • Ghodes, Clarence Louis Frank. 1951. Facts of Life versus Pleasant Reading. In The Literature of the American People. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  • Goodrich, Arthur. 1902. Frank Norris. Current Literature 33 (Decembri).
  • Goodrich, Arthur. 1903. Frank Norris, the Man. Current Literature 34 (Ianuario).
  • Goldsmith, Arnold Smith. 1953. Free Will, Determinism and Social Responsibility in the Writings of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., Frank Norris and Henry James. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin.
  • Goldsmith, Arnold Smith. 1958. The Development of Frank Norris's Philosophy. In Studies in Honor of John Wilcox. Wayne State University Press.
  • Graham, Don. 1976. The Fiction of Frank Norris: The Aesthetic Context. University of Missouri Press.
  • Grattan, C. Hartley. 1929. Frank Norris. The Bookman, Iulio.
  • Harrison, Robert. 1941. The Writings of Frank Norris as Viewed by his Contemporaries. M.A. thesis, Ohio University.
  • Hart, James D., ed. 1970. A Novelist in the Making: Frank Norris. Cantabrigiae Massachusettqae: Harvard University Press.
  • Hartwick, Harry. 1934. Norris and the Brute. In The Foreground of American Fiction. American Book Company.
  • Hill, Marion V. 1954. A Study of Thematic Forces in the Novels of Frank Norris. M.A. thesis, Bownling Green State University.
  • Hill, John Stanley. 1960. Frank Norris's Heroines. University of Wisconsin.
  • Hochman, Barbara. 1988. The Art of Frank Norris, Storyteller. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 0826206638.
  • Houston, Margaret Dorothy. 1939. Frank Norris's Theory of Romanticism and Its Application in The Octopus. University of Washington.
  • Howells, William Dean. 1965. Frank Norris (1870–1902). In Criticism and Fiction. New York University Press.
  • Hussman, Lawrence E. 1998. Harbingers of a Century: The Novels of Frank Norris. Peter Lang Pub Inc.
  • Johnson, George W. 1961. Frank Norris and Romance. American Literature 33(1).
  • Kaplan, Charles. 1952. Frank Norris and the Craft of Fiction. Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University.
  • Kaplan, Charles. 1953. Norris's Use of Sources in The Pit. American Literature 25.
  • Kaplan, Charles. 1954. Fact into Fiction in McTeague. Harvard Library Bulletin 8.
  • Kusler, Gerald E. 1950. The Evolution of Frank Norris. M.A. thesis, State University of Iowa.
  • Kwiat, Joseph J. 1953. The Newspaper Experience: Crane, Norris and Dreiser. Nineteenth Century Fiction 8 (Septembri).
  • Letizia, Louise M. 1950. Frank Norris: A Study in Contrasts and Contradictions. M.A. thesis, University of Pittsburgh.
  • Logue, Charles William. 1949. Frank Norris: A Study in Romantic Realism. M.A. thesis, St. John University.
  • Lundy, Robert Donald. 1956. The Making of McTeague and The Octopus. Ph.D. dissertatio, University of California, Berkeley.
  • Lye, Coleen. 2003. American Naturalism and Asiatic Racial Form: Frank Norris's The Octopus and Moran of the "Lady Letty." Representations 84(1).
  • Mahin, Sarah Jane. 1944. Formative Influences on Frank Norris's Novel McTeague. M.A. thesis, University of Iowa.
  • Marchand, Ernest. 1942. Frank Norris: A Study. Oxford University Press.
  • Matthews, Margaret Moore. 1937. Frank Norris: Pioneer Realist. M.A. thesis, University of South Carolina.
  • McCormick, Paul S. 1931. Frank Norris and the American Epic. M.A. thesis, Columbia University.
  • McElrath, Joseph R. 1978. Frank Norris: A Biographical Essay. American Literary Realism, 1870–1910, 11(2).
  • McElrath, Joseph R., Jr. 1988. Frank Norris and the Wave: A Bibliography. Garland Publishing.
  • McElrath, Joseph R. 1993. Frank Norris' "The Puppets and the Puppy": LeContean Idealism or Naturalistic Skepticism? American Literary Realism, 1870–1910 26(1).
  • McElrath, Joseph R., Jr., et Katherine Knight. 1981. Frank Norris, the Critical Reception. Ben Franklin & Co.
  • McElrath, Joseph R., Jr., et Jesse S. Crisler. 2006. Frank Norris: A Life. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252030168.
  • McElrath, Joseph R., Jr., et Jesse S. Crisler. 2013. Frank Norris Remembered. University of Alabama Press.
  • McGinn, Richard Joseph. 1954. The Characterization of Women in the Novels of Frank Norris. M.A thesis, Columbia University.
  • Mitchell, Marvin O'Neill. 1953. A Study of Realistic and Romantic Elements in the Fiction of E. W. Howe, Joseph Kirkland, Hamlin Garland and Harold Frederic and Frank Norris (1882–1902). Ph.D. dissertatio, University of North Carolina.
  • Morris, Ethiel Virginia. 1928. Frank Norris' Trilogy on American Life. M.A. thesis, University of Kansas.
  • Musich, Gerald Donald. 1973. Frank Norris' Character Types. University of Wisconsin–Madison.
  • Norris, Charles G. 1914. Frank Norris, 1870–1902. Doubleday, Page & Co.
  • Pallette, Drew B. 1934. The Theories and Practice of Frank Norris as Related to his California Background. M.A. thesis, University of Southern California.
  • Parrington, Vernon Louis. 1930. The Development of Realism. In The Reinterpretation of American Literature. Harcourt Brace.
  • Patee, Fred Lewis. 1930. The New American Literature, 1890–1930. Century Company.
  • Phillips, Marion B. 1922. Aspects of the Naturalistic Novel in America. M.A. thesis, University of California.
  • Piper, Henry Dan. 1956. Frank Norris and Scott Fitzgerald. Huntington Library Quarterly 19(4).
  • Pizer, Donald. 1958. Romantic Individualism in Garland, Norris and Crane. American Quarterly 10 (Winter).
  • Pizer, Donald. 1961. Evolutionary Ethical Dualism in Frank Norris' Vandover and the Brute and McTeague. PMLA 76(5).
  • Pizer, Donald. 1966. The Novels of Frank Norris. Indiana University Press.
  • Preston, Harriet Waters. 1903. The Novels of Mr. Norris. Atlantic Monthly 91 (Maio).
  • Ramsay, Orrington Cozzens. 1950. Frank Norris and Environment. Ph.D. dissertatio, University of Wisconsin.
  • Rosa, Matthew Whiting. 1929. Frank Norris. M.A. thesis, Columbia University.
  • Smith, Allan Lloyd. 1995. Frank Norris: The Crisis of Representation. American Literary Realism, 1870–1910 27(2).
  • Spector, Michael Jay. 1962. Frank Norris and Human Nature. University of Wisconsin–Madison.
  • Stegner, Wallace. 1965. The American Novel: from James Fenimore Cooper to William Faulkner. Basic Books.
  • Thorp, Willard. 1960. American Writing in the Twentieth Century. Harvard University Press.
  • Todd, Frank M. 1902. rank Norris, Student, Author and Man. University of California Magazine 8 (November).
  • Toher, Martha Dimes. 1982. "The Music of the Spheres": The Diapason in Frank Norris's Works. American Literary Realism, 1870–1910 15(2).
  • Underwood, John Curtis. 1914. "Frank Norris." In Literature and Insurgency, capitulum 4, Mitchell Kennerley.
  • Walker, Franklin. 1932. Frank Norris: A Biography. Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc.
  • Wertheim, Stanley. 1991. Frank Norris and Stephen Crane: Conviction and Uncertainty. American Literary Realism, 1870–1910 24(1).

Nexus externiRecensere

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