Usor:Andrew Dalby/Libri Biblici
According to the Jewish tradition, the Tanakh consists of 24 books:
- 5 books of the Torah ("Instruction")
- 8 books of the Nevi'im ("Prophets")
- 11 books of the Ketuvim ("Writings" or "Scriptures")
The Tanakh also counts as one book what are often counted as two in Christian Bibles (e.g. 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings and so forth), and where all the twelve "Books" of the "Trei Asar," the Twelve Prophets, are also considered as one.
The Hebrew names of the books of the Torah are based on the first prominent word in each book. The English names are not translations of the Hebrew. Instead, they are based on Greek names created for the Septuagint which are, in turn, based on Rabbinic names describing the thematic content of each of the Books.
The twenty-four "Books" in the Tanakh are as follows:
The Five Books of Moses or Torah ("Teaching") [also known as the Pentateuch/Khumash] consists of:
- 1. Genesis [בראשית / B'reshit]
- 2. Exodus [שמות / Sh'mot]
- 3. Leviticus [ויקרא / Vayiqra]
- 4. Numbers [במדבר / B'midbar]
- 5. Deuteronomy [דברים / D'varim]
The books of Nevi'im ("Prophets") are:
- 6. Joshua [יהושע / Y'hoshua]
- 7. Judges [שופטים / Shophtim]
- 8. Samuel (I & II) [שמואל / Sh'muel]
- 9. Kings (I & II) [מלכים / M'lakhim]
- 10. Isaiah [ישעיה / Y'shayahu]
- 11. Jeremiah [ירמיה / Yir'mi'yahu]
- 12. Ezekiel [יחזקאל / Y'khezqel]
- 13. The Twelve Prophets [תרי עשר]
- I. Hosea [הושע / Hoshea]
- II. Joel [יואל / Yo'el]
- III. Amos [עמוס / Amos]
- IV. Obadiah [עובדיה / Ovadyah]
- V. Jonah [יונה / Yonah]
- VI. Micah [מיכה / Mikhah]
- VII. Nahum [נחום / Nakhum]
- VIII. Habakkuk [חבקוק /Khavaquq]
- IX. Zephaniah [צפניה / Ts'phanyah]
- X. Haggai [חגי / Khagai]
- XI. Zechariah [זכריה / Z'kharyah]
- XII. Malachi [מלאכי / Mal'akhi]
The Ketuvim ("Writings") are:
- The "Sifrei Emet," "Books of Truth":
- 14. Psalms [תהלים / T'hilim]
- 15. Proverbs [משלי / Mishlei]
- 16. Job [איוב / Iyov]
- The "Five Megilot" or "Five Scrolls":
- 17. Song of Songs [שיר השירים / Shir Hashirim]
- 18. Ruth [רות / Rut]
- 19. Lamentations [איכה / Eikhah]
- 20. Ecclesiastes [קהלת / Qohelet]
- 21. Esther [אסתר / Est(h)er]
- The rest of the "Writings":
- 22. Daniel [דניאל / Dani'el]
- 23. Ezra-Nehemiah [עזרא ונחמיה / Ezra wuNekhem'ya]
- 24. Chronicles (I & II) [דברי הימים / Divrey Hayamim]
|Standard English name|
|Ἰησοῦς Nαυῆ||Iêsous Nauê||Joshua|
|Βασιλειῶν Αʹ||I Reigns||I Samuel|
|Βασιλειῶν Βʹ||II Reigns||II Samuel|
|Βασιλειῶν Γʹ||III Reigns||I Kings|
|Βασιλειῶν Δʹ||IV Reigns||II Kings|
|Παραλειπομένων Αʹ||Things Omitted I||I Chronicles|
|Παραλειπομένων Βʹ||Things Omitted II||II Chronicles|
|Ἔσδρας Αʹ||I Esdras||1 Esdras;|
|Ἔσδρας Βʹ||II Esdras||Ezra-Nehemiah|
|Ἐσθήρ||Esther||Esther with additions|
|Τωβίτ||Tobit||Tobit or Tobias|
|Μακκαβαίων Αʹ||I Maccabees||1 Maccabees|
|Μακκαβαίων Βʹ||II Maccabees||2 Maccabees|
|Μακκαβαίων Γʹ||III Maccabees||3 Maccabees|
|Ψαλμός ΡΝΑʹ||Psalm 151||Psalm 151|
|Προσευχὴ Μανάσση||Prayer of Manasseh||Prayer of Manasseh|
|Ἆσμα Ἀσμάτων||Song of Songs||Song of Solomon|
|Σοφία Σαλoμῶντος||Wisdom of Solomon||Wisdom|
|Σοφία Ἰησοῦ Σειράχ||Wisdom of Jesus the son of Seirach||Sirach or Ecclesiasticus|
|Δώδεκα||The Twelve||Minor Prophets|
|Ὡσηέ Αʹ||I. Osëe||Hosea|
|Ἀμώς Βʹ||II. Ämōs||Amos|
|Μιχαίας Γʹ||III. Michaias||Micah|
|Ἰωήλ Δʹ||IV. Ioel||Joel|
|Ὀβδίου Εʹ||V. Obdias||Obadiah|
|Ἰωνᾶς Ϛ'||VI. Ionas||Jonah|
|Ναούμ Ζʹ||VII. Naoum||Nahum|
|Ἀμβακούμ Ηʹ||VIII. Ambakum||Habakkuk|
|Σοφονίας Θʹ||IX. Sophonias||Zephaniah|
|Ἀγγαῖος Ιʹ||X. Ängaios||Haggai|
|Ζαχαρίας ΙΑʹ||XI. Zacharias||Zachariah|
|Ἄγγελος ΙΒʹ||XII. Messenger||Malachi|
|Επιστολή Ιερεμίου||Epistle of Jeremiah||Letter of Jeremiah;|
|Δανιήλ||Daniêl||Daniel with additions|
|Μακκαβαίων Δ' Παράρτημα||IV Maccabees||4 Maccabees|
The Peshitta version of the Old Testament is an independent translation based largely on a Hebrew text similar to the Proto-Masoretic Text. It shows a number of linguistic and exegetical similarities to the Aramaic Targums but is now no longer thought to derive from them. In some passages the translators have clearly used the Greek Septuagint. The influence of the Septuagint is particularly strong in Isaiah and the Psalms, probably due to their use in the liturgy. Most of the Deuterocanonicals are translated from the Septuagint, except that Tobit did not exist in early versions of the Peshitta, and the translation of Sirach was based on a Hebrew text. It also includes 2 Baruch (Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch) and the Letter or Epistle of Baruch.
The Peshitta version of the New Testament shows a continuation of the tradition of the Diatessaron and Old Syriac versions, displaying some lively 'Western' renderings (particularly clear in the Acts of the Apostles). It combines with this some of the more complex 'Byzantine' readings of the fifth century. One peculiar feature of the Peshitta is the absence of 2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude and Revelation. Modern Syriac Bibles add sixth or seventh century translations of these five books to a revised Peshitta text.
Biblia Latina (Biblia Vulgata)Recensere
These are the books of the Latin Vulgate along with the names and numbers given them in the Douay Rheims Bible and King James Bible. There are 76 books in the Clementine edition of the Latin Vulgate, 46 in the Old Testament, 27 in the New Testament, and 3 in the Apocrypha.
|Vulgate||Douay Rheims||King James Bible|
|Oratio Manassæ regis||Prayer of Manasses||Prayer of Manasses|
|3 Esdræ||3 Esdras||1 Esdras|
|4 Esdræ||4 Esdras||2 Esdras|
The names and numbers of the books of the Latin Vulgate differ in ways that may be confusing to many modern Bible readers. In addition, some of the books of the Vulgate have content that has been removed to separate books entirely in many modern Bible translations. This list is an aid to tracking down the content of a Vulgate reference.
The Psalms of the Vulgate follow the numbering assigned to them in the Septuagint which differs from the numbering found in the King James Bible, though not in the order nor the content. See Psalms for more details.
Note that the Apocrypha and Old Testament divisions of the Vulgate do not exactly correspond to those sections in the King James Bible. The Vulgate's Apocrypha section is smaller than the King James Bible's, with a correspondingly larger Old Testament. See the article on the Biblical canon for details as to why this is so. The names of those books found in the Apocrypha section of their respective versions are in italics.
A complement to this list can be found at List of books of the Authorized King James Version.
The list is for the Clementine Vulgate. Other editions of the Vulgate vary in the Apocrypha, in the order of the books, and in the names of the books.
- The Gutenberg Bible mixes the apocrypha into the Old Testament, with the Prayer of Manasses following 2 Paralipomenon, and 3 and 4 Esdras following 1 Esdras and Nehemias. The Prayer of Solomon follows Ecclesiasticus. It thus has 50 books in the Old Testament and 27 in the New, for a total of 77 books.
- The New Vulgate changes the name of Ecclesiasticus to Liber Siracidae; Tobiae is called Thobis. Although the New Vulgate contains the Deuterocanonical books, it omits the three apocrypha entirely. It thus has a total of only 73 books.
- The Stuttgart Vulgate adds Psalm 151 and Paul's Epistle to the Laodiceans to the Apocrypha. It thus has 5 books in the Apocrypha, 46 in the Old Testament, and 27 in the New, for a total of 78 books. The spelling of proper names in this edition is irregular and inconsistent, so the names of many of the books were altered, e.g. Naum for Nahum.
Vetus Testamentum ChristianorumRecensere
|~ Books of the Old Testament ~|
|The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh.
in the Hebrew Bible these are one book known as "Trei Asar" or "Twelve".
|Included by Roman Catholics and Orthodox, but excluded by Jews and Protestants:|
|Included by Orthodox (Synod of Jerusalem):|
|Included by Russian and Ethiopian Orthodox:|
|Included by Ethiopian Orthodox:|
|Included by Syriac Peshitta Bible:|
Novum Testamentum ChristianorumRecensere
The Peshitta excludes 2-3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation, but Bibles of the modern Syriac Orthodox Church include later translations of those books along with the Letter of Baruch. Still today the official lectionary followed by the Syrian Orthodox Church (with headquarters at Kottayam (Kerala), and the Chaldean Syriac Church, also known as the Church of the East (Nestorian), with headquarters at Trichur (Kerala)) presents lessons from only the twenty-two books of Peshitta, the version to which appeal is made for the settlement of doctrinal questions. Third Epistle to the Corinthians was once considered part of the Armenian Orthodox Bible, but is no longer printed with modern editions.
- Βασιλειῶν (Basileiōn) is the genitive plural of Βασιλεῖα (Basileia).
- That is, supplementary material for Reigns
- also called Τωβείτ or Τωβίθ in some sources.
- Obdiou is genitive from "The vision of Obdias," which opens the book.