Le Tretiz ("Tractatus, i.e. liber manualis") est opusculum in versibus Francogallicis cum glossis Anglicis saeculo XIII medio a Gualtero de Bibbesworth scriptum, et saepius inter textus Anglonormannicos enumeratum. Liber Dionysiae de Monte Canisio dicatus ad instructione liberorum destinatus est, ut melius vocabula Francogallica de rebus rusticis et de vita quotidiana intellegerent. Gulielmus (filius eius) et Ioanna (filia mariti eius e prima uxore genita) ex hoc libro linguam Francogallicam didicisse censentur.

Rura iuxta Bibbsworth Hall Hertfordiae.

Thomas Wright, qui textum primus anno 1857 edidit, ita explicavit: "This "treatise" ... marks a very important period in the history of the English language, as it shows that before the end of the thirteenth century, and perhaps subsequently to the barons' wars, that language had already become the mother tongue of the children of the Anglo-Norman nobility, and that they learnt it before they were taught French".[1]

  1. Wright (1857) p. xi


Editiones et versiones
Historica et critica
  • Albert C. Baugh, "The Date of Walter of Bibbesworth's Traité" in Horst Oppel, ed., Festschrift für Walther Fischer (Heidelbergae: Winter, 1959) pp. 21-33
  • Alexander Bell, "Notes on Walter de Bibbesworth's "Treatise"" in Philological Quarterly vol. 41 (1962) pp. 361-372
  • Renate Haas, "Femina: female roots of "foreign" language teaching and the rise of mother-tongue ideologies" in Exemplaria vol. 19 no. 1 (2007) pp. 139-162
  • Karen K. Jambeck, "The "Tretiz" of Walter of Bibbesworth: cultivating the vernacular" in Albrecht Classen, ed., Childhood in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (Berolini: Walter De Gruyter, 2005) pp. 159-184 (Paginae selectae apud Google Books)
  • Kathleen Kennedy, "Changes in Society and Language Acquisition: the French language in England 1215-1480" in English Language Notes vol. 35 (1998) pp. 1-15
  • Andres Kristol, "L'enseignement du français en Angleterre (XIIIe-XVe siècles): les sources manuscrites" in Romania vol. 111 (1990) pp. 289-330
  • W. Rothwell, "A Mis-Judged Author and a Mis-Used Text: Walter de Bibbesworth and His "Tretiz"" in Modern Language Review vol. 77 (1982) pp. 282-293
  • W. Rothwell, "Anglo-French and Middle English Vocabulary in "Femina Nova"" in Medium Aevum vol. 69 (2000) pp. 34-58
  • W. Rothwell, "Sugar and Spice and All Things Nice: From Oriental Bazar to English Cloister in Anglo-French[nexus deficit]" in Modern Language Review vol. 94 (1999) pp. 647-659
  • W. Rothwell, "The Teaching of French in Medieval England" in Modern Language Review vol. 63 (1968) pp. 37-46

Nexus interni

Nexus externi