Quantum redactiones paginae "Servitus" differant

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{{Videdis|servitus}}
[[Fasciculus:Geromeslavemarket.jpg|thumb|upright=1|Serva''Mercatus venditurservorum.'' Tabula ab [[Ioannes Leo Gérôme|Ioanne Leone Gérôme]] (1824–1904) circa [[1866]] picta. Institutum Artium Sterling et Francine Clark, Williamstown, Massachusettae.]]
[[Fasciculus:Slavezanzibar2.JPG|thumb|''Castigatio quam magister [[Arabia|Arabus]] pro peccato levi adfecit.'' Photogramma servi in [[Zanzibar]], circa [[1890]] capta.]]
'''Servitudo''' appellatur [[servitus (ius)|servitus hominis]] vel perpetua vel aeterna, quae contra [[voluntas|voluntatem]] et [[libertas|libertatem]] hominis habetur. Etiam sevitudo dicitur servitus cum in [[oeconomia|systema oeconomicum]] versa esset.
[[Fasciculus:Ruslavery.jpg|thumb|''Forum servorum in [[Europa Orientalis|Europa Orientali]] [[Medium Aevum|Medio Aevo]] ineunte.'' Tabula a [[Sergius Basilii filius Ivanov|Sergio Ivanov]] picta.]]
[[Fasciculus:Fathers of the Redemption.jpg|thumb|[[Mercedariani]] servos [[Christianitas|Christianos]] in manibus [[Islam|Mussulmanorum]] tentos redimunt. Imago ex Stanley Lane-Poole, ''The Story of the Barbary Corsairs'' (G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1890).]]
[[Fasciculus:Boleslav of Bohemia and Jewish slave trader.jpg|thumb|[[Mercator]] servorum in [[Boleslaus I, Dux Bohemiae|Boleslaum Bohemiae]] incidit. [[Saeculum 10|Saeculum decimum]].]]
[[Fasciculus:African slave trade.png|thumb|Itinera praecipua quae ad transporandos servos trans [[Africa]]m [[Medium Aevum|mediaevalem]] adhibita sunt.]]
[[Fasciculus:Slaves ruvuma.jpg|thumb|[[Arabia|Arabi]] servorum mercatores et eorum capti secundum [[Flumen Ruvuma]], in [[Tanzania]] et [[Mozambicum|Mozambico]] hodiernis.]]
 
'''Servitudo''' est [[systema oeconomicum]] quo [[homo|homines]] [[mercimonium|bona]]<!--'merchandise, goods', but en text has 'property', leading to a different article--> considerantur ut venumdentur et [[labor non libera|laborare compellantur]].<ref>{{cite book|author=Laura Brace | title=The Politics of Property: Labour, Freedom and Belonging|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=osZnIiqDd4sC&pg=PA162 | accessdate=[[31 Maii]] [[2012]] | year=[[2004]] | publisher=Edinburgh University Press|isbn=978-0-7486-1535-3|pages=162–}}.</ref> [[Servus|Servi]] contra eorum [[voluntas|voluntatem]] a tempore eorum captivitatis, emptionis, vel ortus teneri, atque [[ius|iure]] discedere, nolle laborare, et poscere [[remuneratio|compensationem]] privari possunt. Servitudo per [[historia]]m in institutionibus multarum [[societas hominum|societatibus]] olim agnita est; recentioribus autem temporibus servitudo in plurimis societatibus interdicitur, sed per [[mos|mores]] [[servitus in aere alieno|servitutis in aere alieno]],<!--debt bondage--> [[servitudo per pactum|servitudinis per pactum]]<!--indentured servitude-->, ''[[serfdom]],'' [[opus domesticum|operis domestici]]<!--d. worker--> captorum custoditorum, certarum [[adoptio]]num (quibus [[puer]]i laborare ut servi compelluntur), [[militaris puerorum usus|militum puerorum]], et [[matrimonium compulsum|matrimonii compulsi]] persistit.<ref name="modernslavery">{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/slavery/modern/modern_2.shtml |title=Religion & Ethics – Modern slavery: Modern forms of slavery |publisher=BBC |date=[[30 Ianuarii]] [[2007]] |accessdate=[[16 Iunii]] [[2009]].}}</ref>
== Historia servitus ==
 
Servitudo tabulas scriptas antecedit et in multis [[cultura|culturis]] exsistitit.<ref name="Slavery" /> [[Numerus]] servorum hodiernorum fortasse est inter 12 [[millio]]nes<ref name="Forced labour – Themes">{{cite web|url=http://www.ilo.org/global/Themes/Forced_Labour/lang--en/index.htm|title=Forced labour – Themes|publisher=Ilo.org|date=|accessdate=[[14 Martii]] [[2010]]}}.</ref> et 27 milliones.<ref name="disposable-bales">{{Cite book|last=Bales|first=Kevin|title=Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy|publisher=University of California Press|year=[[1999]]|page=9|chapter=1|isbn=0-520-21797-7}}.</ref><ref name="BBC Millions 'forced into slavery'">{{Cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/2010401.stm|title=BBC Millions 'forced into slavery'|publisher=BBC News |date=[[27 Maii]] [[2002]] | accessdate=[[29 Augusti]] [[2010]]}}.</ref> Plurimi sunt [[servitus in aere alieno|servi in aere alieno]], plerumque in [[Asia Meridiana]], qui ob dolos [[faenerator]]um<!--loan sharks--> in [[aes alienum]] inciderunt, aliquando per generationes.<ref name="newint">{{cite web|url=http://www.newint.org/issue337/facts.htm|title=Slavery in the 21st century|publisher=Newint.org|date=|accessdate=[[29 Augusti]] [[2010]]}}.</ref> [[Mercatus hominum|Commercium humanum]] praecipue ad compellendas [[mulier]]es [[puer]]osque in [[vita meretricia|vitam meretriciam]]<!--prostitution--> adhibetur.<ref name="voa">{{cite web|url=http://www1.voanews. com/english/news/a-13-2009-05-15-voa30-68815957.html|title=Experts encourage action against sex trafficking |publisher=Voice of America|date=2009-05-15|accessdate=2010-08-29}}</ref>
=== Antiquitas ===
 
In [[oeconomia|oeconomiis]] societatum ante [[industria]]m ortam, servi et eorum [[labor]] fuerunt res maximi momenti. Servi et ''serfs'' fuerunt circa tres partes omnium hominum [[saeculum 19|saeculo undevicensimo]] ineunte.<ref>David P. Forsythe, [http://books.google.cz/books?id=1QbX90fmCVUC&pg=&dq&hl=en#v=onepage&q=&f ''Encyclopedia of Human Rights, volume 1''] (Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 399, ISBN 0195334027.—"At the beginning of the nineteenth century an estimated three-quarters of all people alive were trapped in bondage against their will either in some form of slavery or serfdom."</ref>
=== Religio et servitus ===
 
[[Internationalis iurum humanorum lex]] omnes servitudines in omni forma prohibet.
=== Roma antiqua ===
 
===Vide Europa =etiam==
*[[Gulielmus Wilberforce]]
*[[Servitudo in epicis Homeri]]
*[[Servitus (ius)]]
*[[Tippu Tip]]
 
=== Africa =Notae==
<div class="references-small"><references/></div>
 
=== Asia =Bibliographia==
;Generalia
* Bales, Kevin. [[1999]]. ''Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy.''
* Campbell, Gwyn, Suzanne Miers, et Joseph C. Miller, eds. [[2007]]. ''Women and Slavery. Vol. 1: Africa, the Indian Ocean World, and the Medieval Atlantic''; ''Women and Slavery. Vol. 2: The Modern Atlantic.''
* Davis, David Brion. [[1999]]. ''The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770-1823.''
* Davis, David Brion. [[1988]]. ''The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture.''
* Doganis, Rigas, Gad Heuman, et James Walvin, eds. [[2003]]. ''The Slavery Reader.'' Routledge.
* Drescher, Seymour. [[2009]]. ''Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery.''
* Finkelman, Paul, ed. [[1999]]. ''Encyclopedia of Slavery.''
* [[K. S. Lal|Lal, K. S.]] [[1994]]. [http://www.voi.org/books/mssmi/ ''Muslim Slave System in Medieval India.''] ISBN 81-85689-67-9.
* Gordon, M. [[1989]]. ''Slavery in the Arab World.''
* Greene, Jacqueline. [[2001]]. ''Slavery in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.'' ISBN 0-531-16538-8.
* Hogendorn, Jan, et Johnson Marion. [[1986]]. ''The Shell Money of the Slave Trade.'' African Studies Series, 49. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
* Miers, Suzanne, et Igor Kopytoff, eds. [[1979]]. ''Slavery In Africa: Historical & Anthropological Perspectives.''
* Morgan, Kenneth. [[2008]]. ''Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America.''
* Postma, Johannes. [[2003]]. ''The Atlantic Slave Trade.''
* Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. [[1997]]. ''The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery.''
* Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. [[2007]]. ''Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia.''
* [[Robertus Carl-Heinz Shell|Shell, Robert Carl-Heinz]]. [[1994]]. ''Children Of Bondage: A Social History of the Slave Society at the Cape of Good Hope, 1652–1813.''
* Westermann, William Linn. [[1955]]. ''The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity.'' ISBN 0-87169-040-3.
 
; Civitates Foederatae
=== Capitalismus ===
* Berlin, Ira. [[1999]]. ''Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America.''
* Blackmon, Douglas A. [[2008]]. ''Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II.'' Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50625-2, ISBN 978-0-385-50625-0.
* Boles, John. [[1983]]. ''Black Southerners: 1619–1869.''
* Engerman, Stanley L. [[1999]]. [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=25779117 ''Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor.'']
* [[Eugenius D. Genovese|Genovese Eugene D.]] [[1974]]. ''Roll, Jordan Roll.''
* King, Richard H. [[1977]]. Marxism and the Slave South. ''American Quarterly'' 29:117–131. De Genovese 1974.
* Escott, Paul D. [[2001]]. [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002427959 Remembering Slavery: African Americans Talk about Their Personal Experiences of Slavery and Freedom.] ''Journal of Southern History'' 67.
* Parish, Peter J. [[1989]]. [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6641514 ''Slavery: History and Historians.'']
* [[Ulrich Bonnell Phillips|Phillips, Ulrich B.]] [[1918]], [[1966]]. ''American Negro Slavery: A Survey of the Supply, Employment and Control of Negro Labor as Determined by the Plantation Regime.''
* Phillips, Ulrich B. [[1928]]. ''Life and Labor in the Old South.''
* Sellers, James B. [[1950]]. ''Slavery in Alabama.''
* Stampp, Kenneth M. [[1956]]. ''The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South.'' De Philipps 1918, 1928.
* Sydnor, Charles S. [[1933]]. ''Slavery in Mississippi.''
* Vorenberg, Michael. [[2001]]. [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105900244 ''Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment.'']
* Weinstein, Allen, Frank O. Gatell, et Lewis Sarasohn, eds. [[1978]]. ''American Negro Slavery: A Modern Reader.'' Ed. 3a.
* Mintz, Sidney. [http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/slav_fact.cfm ''Slavery Facts & Myths.''] http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/ (Historia Digitalis).
 
===; Servitudo hodieaevo ===hodierno
=== Bella ut servi libertentur ===
 
* Bales, Kevin. [[2004]]. ''Disposable People. New Slavery in the Global Economy.'' Ed. retractata. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24384-6.
=== Servitudo hodie ===
* Bales, Kevin, ed. [[2005]]. ''Understanding Global Slavery Today: A Reader.'' University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24507-5freak.
[[Labor pueri]], [[mercatus hominum]], particulariter [[mulier]]ium, seu hominum in [[migratio]]nem sine auctoritate, servitudo consideratur, et [[internationalis iurum humanorum lex]] prohibet omnes serbitudines in omni forma.
* Bales, Kevin. [[2007]]. ''Ending Slavery: How We Free Today's Slaves.'' University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25470-1.
* Brass, Tom. [[1999]]. ''Towards a Comparative Political Economy of Unfree Labour: Case Studies and Debates.'' Londinii et Portlandiae Oregoniae: Frank Cass Publishers.
* Brass, Tom, et Marcel van der Linden, eds. [[1997]]. ''Free and Unfree Labour: The Debate Continues.'' Bernae: Peter Lang AG.
* Brass, Tom, Marcel van der Linden, et Jan Lucassen. [[1993]]. ''Free and Unfree Labour.'' Amstelodami: International Institute for Social History.
* Craig, Gary, Aline Gaus, Mick Wilkinson, Klara Skrivankova, et Aidan McQ&shy.<!--?--> [[2007]]. [http://www.jrf.org.uk/bookshop/eBooks/2016-contemporary-slavery-UK.pdf Contemporary slavery in the UK: Overview and key issues.] Joseph Rowntree Foundation. ISBN 978-1-85935-573-2.
* Nazer, Mende, et Damien Lewis. [[2003]]. ''Slave: My True Story.'' ISBN 1-58648-212-2.
* Sage, Jesse, et Liora Kasten. [[2008]]. ''Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery.'' Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-7493-8.
* [http://www.somalymamfoundation.org/ Somaly Mam Foundation]
* Sowell, Thomas. [[2005]]. The Real History of Slavery. In ''Black Rednecks and White Liberals.'' Franciscopole: Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1-59403-086-4.
 
== Nexus externi ==
{{CommuniaCat|Slavery|servitudinem}}
{{Wiktionary}}
{{Wikiquote}}
* [http://www.ull.ac.uk/specialcollections/archives/slaveryarchivesources.shtml Conlectiones,] apud www.ull.ac.uk (University of London)
* [http://library.uncg.edu/slavery/ "Digital Library on American Slavery,"] apud library.uncg.edu
* [http://www.marial.emory.edu/exhibitions/dream/intro.html Exhibitio,] apud www.marial.emory.edu (Emory University et Oxford College)
* [http://www.memoirestbarth/EN/ Mémoire St Barth,] apud www.memoirestbarth (Comité de Liaison et d'Application des Sources Historiques)
* [http://www.slaverymuseum.co.uk/ Museum Servitudinis,] apud www.slaverymuseum.co.uk
* [http://www.history.com/topics/slavery Servitudo,] apud www.history.com
* [http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/ Servitudo,] apud www.pbs.org (PBS)
* [http://www.africanholocaust.net/ Servitudo ut holocaustus Africanus,] apud www.africanholocaust.net
* [http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/slav_fact.cfm "Slavery Fact Sheets, Digital History,"] apud www.digitalhistory.uh.edu<!--? + * [http://www.pdavis.nl/Background.htm#WAS The West African Sq&shy;ron and slave trade]-->
* [http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/slavery/ "Slavery Resource Guide,] apud www.loc.gov (Bibliotheca Congressus)
* [http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schooladventures/slavery/ "Understanding Slavery,"] apud school.discoveryeducation.com
 
[[Categoria:Classes sociales]]
{{stipula}}
[[Categoria:Facinora contra humanitatem]]<!--vel Crimina c.h. ~ Delicta c.h.-->
 
[[Categoria:Servitus|!Labor]]
[[Categoria:Oeconomia]]
[[Categoria:Rassismus]]
[[Categoria:Servitus| ]]
[[Categoria:Usus perversi]]<!-- =abuses-->
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