{{Italy Runestones}} {{Runestones}} Siti lapidum runicarum Italiae Tabulae runicarum Italiae sunt tres vel quattuor viccingae lapides runicarum saeculi 11 in Suecia narrantes de militibus mortis in Langbarðaland ("Natio Langobardorum"), nomen Italiae in Lingua Nordica antiqua.

Duae lapides sunt in Uplandia et una vel duae in Sudermannia.

Forsan monumenta erecta in memoriam custodiae varegae[1] Imperii Byzantini (vulgo Varangian Guard), et forsan mortui sunt pugnans in Italia Meridionali in Normannos aut Musulmanos.<ref name="Taby"/> Multi suorum commilitonum memorati sunt 28 '''Lapides runicarum Graeciae, quarum fere omnes sitae sunt in eadem parte Sueciae.

Iuvenes volentes intrare in custodiam varegam non fuerunt barbari, sed verisimiliter, bene educati iuvenes armorum periti.[2] Fuerunt milites grati delectae copiae Imperii Byzantini, et quos dux Ruthenii desideravit a Scandinavia cum erant in periculo.[2]

{{TOClimit|limit=3}}

InterpretationesRecensere

Ioannes Peringskiöld (mortuus anno 1720) censuit Fittja lapidem et Djulefors lapidem delegantem ad Langobardorum migratio a Suecia, sed Celsius (1727) interpretavit eas dissimiliter. Notavit nomen Longobardia non usa pro Italia ante destructionem Regnum Langobardorum anno 774. Postulavit regnum capissitum fuisse a Varegis a Byzantio saeculis 11 et 12, et notavit in expeditione Friderici primi in Italia multos milites Scandinavios fuisse. Ito lapides memoravissent sueciorum militum mortui bello Friderici.[3] Haec opinionem etiam Brocman (1762) habuit, cogitans Holmi mortuum fuisse saeculo 12 pro aut Imperatore Byzantino aut pro duce Imperii Romani Sacri.[4]

A Friesen (1913) notavit non Langobardiam in Italia Septentrionali significantem, sed Catepanicium Italiae in Italia Meridionali ab imperatore Byzantino regnata saeculo 11. Byzantini debebunt pugnara ceteras pugnas in Normannis in Italia Meridionali medio saeculi 11. Verisimiliter Holmi, who is locutus duabus lapidibus, pugnavit has pugnas miles custodiae varegae, cum utuntur nomine comparativo nomini Graeco huius regionis.[5]

Lapides runicarumRecensere

Hic est praesentatio lapidum runicarum Italiae, secundum locum.


UplandiaRecensere

Duae lapides runicarum de Italia scribentes sitae sunt in Uplandia. Errectae sunt a eadem femina in memoriam sui filii.

U 133Recensere

 
Lapis runicarum U 133, fragmentum primum
 
Lapis runicarum U 133, fragmentum secundum

Lapis runicarum U 133 (situs) est style Pr3,[6] partis communioris generis Urnes (vulgo Urnes style). Lapis fracta est in duobus partibus usis in muro ecclesiae Täby. Uterque fragmentum partim in terra sunt.

Fragmenti sunt rubri graniti et pars maior altus 1,02m et latus 0,86 – 1m est, cum minor est altus 0,45m et latus 1,23m.[7] Forsan duplex monumentum formavit cum U 141 in Fittja, ante mota est ad ecclesiam medio saeculi 15.[7]

Haec lapis et U 141 identificatae a a Friesen et Erik Brate opus runici Fot. They were commissioned by Guðlaug in memory of her son Holmi who had died in Langbarðaland.[5] Peterson (2002) identifies Guðlaug with the one who commissioned Sö 206 and Sö 208,[8] while Pritsak (1981) identifies her as Ónæmr's daughter who is mentioned on U 328. He further considers Holmi's father to be Özurr who is mentioned on U 328 and U 330.[9]

Latin transliteration:

+ kuþluk * lit ... ... ... ...a × sun * sin * auk * at * sik * sialfa * han * to * a lank*barþa*l--ti *

transcriptio in linguam Nordicam antiquam:

Guðlaug let [ræisa stæina at Holm]a, sun sinn, ok at sik sialfa. Hann do a Langbarðal[an]di.

English translation:

"Guðlaug had the stones raised in memory of Holmi, her son, and in memory of herself. He died in Lombardy."[6]

U 141Recensere

 
Runestone U 141 in a 17th c. drawing by Johan Hadorph

Runestone U 141 (former location) formed a monument together with U 133, and it was raised by the same grieving mother in memory of her son.[10][9] It was first documented by Johannes Messenius, in 1611. He appears to have learnt about the runestone from Johannes Bureus as both of them mispelt the name Holmi by letting the m precede the l. Aschaneus (1575-1641) made a note that the runestone was to be seen at the estate of Fittja near Täby. It was also documented by Peringskiöld in his Monumenta, and visited by Celsius in 1727. However, it later disappeared and both Richard Dybeck and later Erik Brate searched for it in vain. However, in 1933, a fragment with the final three runes were discovered during the installation of heating equipment in the cellar of the estate. The granite fragment, which measures {{Convert|0.45|m|abbr=on}} in height and {{Convert|0.38|m|abbr=on}} in width, has been raised in the garden of Fittja.[10]

Latin transliteration:

[kuþluk × lit * raisa * staina * at * hulma * sun * sin * han * to * a * lank*barþa*la(n)ti ×]

Old Norse transcription:

Guðlaug let ræisa stæina at Holma, sun sinn. Hann do a Langbarðalandi.

English translation:

"Guðlaug had the stones raised in memory of Holmi, her son. He died in Lombardy."[11]

SödermanlandRecensere

There are two rune stones that mention Italy in Södermanland. However, one of them only says La-, having lost the series of runes that followed. However, the rune stone informs that the location was on the Eastern route, and Langbarðaland is the only known Old Norse place name on the Eastern route that begins with these two runes.

Sö Fv1954;22Recensere

 
Runestone Sö Fv1954;22

Runestone Sö Fv1954;22 (original location) is in reddish grey and fine grained granite, and it was found in 11 pieces on a small hill c. {{Convert|300|m|abbr=on}} south-west of the village Lagnö, in 1949. At the location, the land slopes towards the former sailing route Eldsundet, where there once was a medieval assembly location. A house had once been in the same spot and it is likely that the runestone had been used as material in its stone foundation, or in a stove. The stone was moved to a conservation institute in Stockholm where it was mended but it was impossible to make a complete runestone out of it. In 1953, Jansson visited the location and he managed to retrieve some more fragments, adding up to a total of fifteen pieces. However, only twelve could be put together. The largest fragment is {{Convert|1.40|m|abbr=on}} high, {{Convert|0.65|m|abbr=on}} wide and {{Convert|0.33|m|abbr=on}} thick, whereas the second largest one is {{Convert|1.30|m|abbr=on}} high, {{Convert|0.25|m|abbr=on}} m wide and {{Convert|0.33|m|abbr=on}} thick. The expression i austrvegi ("on the eastern route") also appears on the runestones Sö 34 and Sö 126 in the same province, where it figures in poems in fornyrðislag. The last word in the inscription, which tells where the commemorated man died, is partly lost, but Jansson (1954) notes that it was probably Langbarðaland as it begins with La-.[12] The fragments are presently stored inside the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities in Stockholm.[13]

Latin transliteration:

...i : risti : ---... ... ...in... ... sin : han : iR : entaþr : i : austruiki : ut : o : la-...

Old Norse transcription:

... ræisti ... ... ... ... sinn. Hann eR ændaðr i austrvegi ut a La[ngbarðalandi](?).

English translation:

"... raised ... ... ... ... his. He met his end on the eastern route abroad in Lombardy(?)."[13]

Sö 65Recensere

 
Runestone Sö 65

Runestone Sö 65 is in style Pr1 (Ringerike style)[14] and it was documented at the farm Djul(e)fors during the national search for historic monuments (1667–84).[15] It is nowadays in the south-eastern end of the park of Eriksberg palace (location). It measures c. {{Convert|1.50|m|abbr=on}} in height. Brate & Wessén commented (1924–1936) that a third of the stone had been lost to its left and that it was {{Convert|0.71|m|abbr=on}} wide at its base and {{Convert|0.63|m|abbr=on}} wide at the top.[16] Rundata 2.5 reports that a missing part was discovered in 1934,[14] and Riksantikvarieämbetet includes the rediscovered part in the stone's dimensions reporting its width to be {{Convert|1.06|m|abbr=on}}.[17]

Sophus Bugge noted in his Runverser that the expression arði barði ("ploughed his stern") also appears in the Icelandic Third Grammatical Treatise by Óláfr Þórðarson, and as well in a verse by the Okney jarl Rögnvald Brusason. He also commented that the epitath is in the meter that Snorri Sturluson called hinn skammi háttr. Furthermore, he added that since seafaring played an important role in the lives of all Norse peoples, it would only be natural if they had many poetic expressions like arði barði in common[16] (cf. Sö 198).

Latin transliteration:

[inka : raisti : stain : þansi : at : ulai](f) : sin : [a...k] : han : austarla : arþi : barþi : auk : o : lakbarþilanti : [anlaþis +]

Old Norse transcription:

Inga ræisti stæin þannsi at Olæif sinn ... Hann austarla arði barði ok a Langbarðalandi andaðis.

English translation:

"Inga raised this stone in memory of Óleifr, her ... He ploughed his stern to the east, and met his end in the land of the Lombards."[14]

NotesRecensere

  1. [1]
  2. 2.0 2.1 Larsson 2002:145
  3. Wessén 1940–1943:207
  4. Wessén 1940–1943:208
  5. 5.0 5.1 Wessén 1940–43:199
  6. 6.0 6.1 Entry U 133, in Rundata 2.5 for Windows.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Wessén 1940–43:198
  8. Peterson 2002, entry Guðlaug.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Pritsak 1980:392
  10. 10.0 10.1 Wessén 1940–1943:206
  11. Entry U 141, in Rundata 2.5 for Windows.
  12. Jansson 1954:21–25
  13. 13.0 13.1 Entry Sö Fv1954;22, in Rundata 2.5 for Windows.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Entry Sö 65, in Rundata 2.5 for Windows.
  15. Brate & Wessén 1924–1936:49
  16. 16.0 16.1 Brate & Wessén 1924–1936:50
  17. Entry RAÄ-nummer Stora Malm 20:1 at Fornsök on the site of Riksantikvarieämbetet, retrieved 03-06-2009.

SourcesRecensere

  • Brate, Erik; Elias Wessen (1924–1936). Sveriges runinskrifter: III. Södermanlands runinskrifter. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien 
  • Jansson, S. B. F. (1954). Uppländska, småländska och sörmländska runstensfynd, in Bohrn, E. (ed) Fornvännen årgång 54.[2] pp. 1-25.
  • Larsson, Mats G (2002). Götarnas Riken : Upptäcktsfärder Till Sveriges Enande. Bokförlaget Atlantis AB ISBN 978-91-7486-641-4
  • Nordisk runnamslexikon by Lena Peterson at the Swedish Institute for Linguistics and Heritage (Institutet för språk och folkminnen).
  • Pritsak, Omeljan. (1981). The origin of Rus'. Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISBN 0-674-64465-4
  • Wessén, E.; Jansson, S. B. F. (1940-1943). Sveriges runinskrifter: VI. Upplands runinskrifter del 1. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien 
  • Rundata 2.5/Samnordisk runtextdatabas. Elmevik, L. & Peterson, L. (2008). Institutionen för Nordiska språk, Uppsala Universitet
  • 2. Runriket - Täby kyrka, an online article at Stockholm County Museum, retrieved July 1, 2007.

External linksRecensere

[[Category:Runestones in Uppland]] [[Category:Runestones in Södermanland]] [[Category:Runestones in memory of Viking warriors]] [[Category:Varangians]] [[Category:Byzantine Empire-related inscriptions]] [[sv:Langbardaland]] [[it:Pietre runiche d'Italia]]