India (-ae, f.; Hindi भारत Bhārata), seu plenius Res Publica India (भारत गणराज्य Bhārata Gaṇarājya),[1] est civitas sui iuris in Asia Meridiana sita, septima mundi civitas quod ad superficiem pertinet, ad numerum civium ex Iunio anni 2023 prima,[2][3] et ex anno 1947, tempore suae libertatis constitutae, frequentissima orbis terrarum democratia.[4][5][6]

Wikidata India
Res apud Vicidata repertae:
India: insigne
India: insigne
India: vexillum
India: vexillum
Terra continens: Asia
Territoria finitima: Nepalia, Bangladesia, Butania, Birmania, Pakistania, Res publica popularis Sinarum, Indonesia, Srilanca
Locus: 22°48′0″N 83°0′0″E
Caput: Dellium Novum

Gestio

Res publica foederalis, parliamentary democracy
Princeps: Droupadi Murmu
Praefectus: Narendra Modi
Consilium: Parliament of India
Iudicium: Supreme Court of India
Situs interretialis

Populus

Numerus: 1 326 093 247
Sermo publicus: Hindice, Anglice
Zona horaria: Indian Standard Time, Asia/Kolkata
Moneta: Indian rupee

Commemoratio

Paean: Jana Gaṇa Mana
Praeceptum: Satyameva Jayate

Sigla

ISO IN, IND, 356; IOC IND
Dominium interretiale: .in, .ભારત, .भारत, .ଭାରତ, .ਭਾਰਤ, .ভারত, .இந்தியா, .భారత్, .ভাৰত, .بھارت, .ಭಾರತ, .ഭാരതം
Praefixum telephonicum: +91
Siglum autoraedarum: IND

Tabula aut despectus

India: situs
India: situs
Tabula Indiae.

India, definita ab Oceano Indico in meridie, Mari Arabico in occidente, et Sinu Bengaliensi in oriente, litus 7517 chiliometrorum longum habet.[7] Attingit Pakistaniam in occidente[8]; Sinas (provinciam Tibeticam), Nepaliam, et Butaniam in septentrionibus; et Bangladesham et Birmaniam in oriente. India est prope Sri Lancam, Insulas Maldivas, et Indonesiam in Oceano Indico.

Terra Civilizationis Vallis Indi et antiqua viarum mercatoriarum et vastorum imperiorum regio, subcontinens Indica diutissime agnitus est pro divitiis commercii et culturae suorum (Oldenburg 2007). Quattuor maiores orbis terrarum religionesHinduismus, Buddhismus, Iainismus, et Sikhismus—in India ortae sunt, cum Zoroastrianismus, Iudaismus, Christianitas, et Islam primo millennio advenirent et culturam regionis commutarent. Paulatim a Societate Britannica Indiae Orientalis adiuncta a saeculo duodevicensimo ineunte et colonizata a Regno Britanniarum a medio saeculo undevicensimo India facta est civitas libera anno 1947 post certamen pro libertate, quod a longe lateque diffusa recusatione non violenta designatum est.

India ex 1950 est respublica foederalis, quae in viginti octo civitatibus et septem territoriis sub parlamentaria democratiae systemate consistit. Maximarum mundi oeconomiarum eius oeconomia est duodecima rationibus permutationibus mercatoriis(en) et quarta potestate potentia emptionis(en). Oeconomicis post 1991 correctionibus effectum est, ut una ex eis, quae quam celerrime creverunt, mundi civitatibus exstitisset. Adhuc autem restant extrema paupertas,[9] legendi scribendique imperitia, fames. Etiam religionum, linguarum, gentium multitudo societatis Indicae est. Terram habitant multae ferae in variis reservatis tutelaribus.

Nomina recensere

Nomen India de Indo Flumine deducitur, quod de verbo Lingua Persica Antiqua Hindu deducitur, ex verbo Sanscritico सिन्धु Sindhu, antiqua Indi fluminis appellatione.[10] A Graecis antiquis incolae Indoe (Ινδοί) appellabantur, ut qui diceret "populus Indi fluminis",[11] unde Latine "Indi". Constitutio Indiae et usitati in variis subcontinentis linguis mores agnoscunt Bharat (/ˈbʱɑːrʌt̪/) quoque ut publicum statús aequalis nomen.[12] Bharat de nomine fictici Bharatae regis in mythologia Indica deducitur. Nomen hodiernum Hindustania(en), priscum vocabulum Persicum pro 'Terra Indorum', solum ad Indiam Septentrionalem(en) recte attinens, aliquando synonymum pro omni India adhibetur.[13]

Historia antiqua recensere

Abhinc annorum 55 000 fere, homines sapientes, primi homines hodierni, in subcontinentem Indicam ex Africa adveniebant, ubi se antea evolverant.[14][15][16] Prima hominum hodiernorum reliquia nota in Asia Meridiana ex aevo abhinc annorum 30 000 fere exstant.[17] Post annum 6500 a.C.n. fere, indicia frugum animaliumque domitorum, structurarum perpetuarum aedificatarum, et residuorum agriculturalium reconditorum in Mehrgarh aliisque locis in regione nunc Balochistania appellata apparere incipiebant.[18] Quae cultura in Civilizationem Vallis Indicae gradatim mutata est,[19][20] primam culturam urbanam in Asia Meridiana,[21] quae ab anno 2500 ad annum 1900 a.C.n. floruit in regione nunc Pakistania et India occidentali appellata.[22] Quae civilizatio, in Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, Kalibangan, aliisque urbibus condita, atque variis subsistentiae generibus innitens, fabricam artificiorum et commercium porrectum vehementer suscepit.[23]

Antiquissima religionum mundi a multis habetur Religio Induica, quae in India ab anno 3000 a.C.n. vel multis annis ante orta est. In India etiam sexto saeculo a.C.n. duae notissimae religiones conditae sunt, videlicet Buddhismus et Iainismus. Huic nonnulli obsequuntur, sed ille nunc in India desuetus est. Post octavum saeculum, multi homines Indici, praecipue in India septentrionali, religionem Islamicam acceperunt, quia nationes Islamicae ex terris Occidentalibus oppugnantes multum subcontinentis vicerunt.

India 193 annos fuit colonia Britanniarum Regni, ab 1754 (Bellum Plasseyense) ad mensem Augusti 1947; quo tempore Unio Indiae et civitas Pakistania creatae sunt e priori territorio Indico. Anno 1950, India res publica rite facta est.

Legifer? recensere

Corpus legiferum Indiae est Parlamentum, quod duo cameras habet: Concilium Civitatum et Cameram Populi. Parlamentum singulis quinque annis eligitur.

Concilium Civitatum consiliarii in 250 sociis constitit, a legiferi civitatibus eliguntur. Concilium Civitatum camera superior est et potentiam habet rogationes e camera inferiori reiicere.

Camera inferior Camera Populi est, cuius membra a populo Indiae eliguntur a suffragiorum pluralitate. Camera Populi quoque quattuor membra Indi Angliae habet, numerum membrorum 545 significat. Primus minister a Camera Populi est.?

Gentica Symbola Rei Publicae Indiae
Genticum animal  
Gentica avis  
Gentica arbor  
Genticus flos  
Geniticum hereditatis animal  
Genticum aquaticum marinum animal mammalis  
Genticum reptilium  
Genticum hereditatis animal mammalis  
Genticus fructus  
Genticum templum  
Genticum flumen  
Genticus mons  

Partes administrativae recensere

Flumina recensere

Urbes maiores recensere

  Conferatur pagina principalis Index urbium Indiae.

Homines notissimi recensere

Pinacotheca recensere

Nexus interni

Notae recensere

  1. The Essential Desk Reference, Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 76, ISBN 978-0-19-512873-4  "Official name: Republic of India.";
    John Da Graça (2017), Heads of State and Government, Londinii: Macmillan Publishers, p. 421, ISBN 978-1-349-65771-1  "Official name: Republic of India; Bharat Ganarajya (Hindi)";
    Graham Rhind (2017), Global Sourcebook of Address Data Management: A Guide to Address Formats and Data in 194 Countries, Taylor & Francis, p. 302, ISBN 978-1-351-93326-1  "Official name: Republic of India; Bharat.";
    Bradnock, Robert W. (2015), The Routledge Atlas of South Asian Affairs, Routledge, p. 108, ISBN 978-1-317-40511-5  "Official name: English: Republic of India; Hindi:Bharat Ganarajya";
    Penguin Compact Atlas of the World, Penguin Group, 2012, p. 140, ISBN 978-0-7566-9859-1  "Official name: Republic of India";
    Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary (tertia ed.), Merriam-Webster, 1997, pp. 515–516, ISBN 978-0-87779-546-9  "Officially, Republic of India";
    Complete Atlas of the World: The Definitive View of the Earth (3rd ed.), DK Publishing, 2016, p. 54, ISBN 978-1-4654-5528-4  "Official name: Republic of India";
    Worldwide Government Directory with Intergovernmental Organizations 2013, CQ Press, 2013, p. 726, ISBN 978-1-4522-9937-2  "India (Republic of India; Bharat Ganarajya)"
  2. Biswas, Soutik (1 Maii 2023). Most populous nation: Should India rejoice or panic?. . BBC News (British Broadcasting Corporation) .
  3. World Population Prospects 2022: Summary of Results. Novi Eboraci: United Nations Department of Social and Economic Affairs. 2022. pp. i .
  4. Cf. Metcalf (2006), p. 327: "Even though much remains to be done, especially in regard to eradicating poverty and securing effective structures of governance, India's achievements since independence in sustaining freedom and democracy have been singular among the world's new nations."
  5. Stein, Burton (2012), Arnold, David, ed., A History of India, The Blackwell History of the World Series (2 ed.), Wiley-Blackwell .
  6. Cf. Fisher (2018), pp. 184–185: "Since 1947, India's internal disputes over its national identity, while periodically bitter and occasionally punctuated by violence, have been largely managed with remarkable and sustained commitment to national unity and democracy."
  7. Kumar et al. 2006.
  8. Secundum Indiae administrationem, India finem commune cum Afgania habet quia India putat totam civitatem Jammu et Casmiria ad Indiam pertinere.
  9. Poverty estimates for 2004-05, Planning commission, Administratio Indiae, Martio 2007. Accessum 25 Augusti 2007.
  10. "India," Oxford English Dictionary, ed. altera (Oxoniae: Oxford University Press).
  11. Basham, A. L. (2000). The Wonder That Was India. South Asia Books. ISBN 0283992573 .
  12. "Official name of the Union". Courts Informatics Division, National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Comm. and Information Tech .
  13. "Hindustan". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. 2007 .
  14. Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxoniae: Oxford University Press, p. 1, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8  Quote: "Modern human beings—Homo sapiens—originated in Africa. Then, intermittently, sometime between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago, tiny groups of them began to enter the north-west of the Indian subcontinent. It seems likely that initially they came by way of the coast. . . . it is virtually certain that there were Homo sapiens in the subcontinent 55,000 years ago, even though the earliest fossils that have been found of them date to only about 30,000 years before the present. (page 1)."
  15. Michael D. Petraglia; Bridget Allchin (22 Maii 2007). The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia: Inter-disciplinary Studies in Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Linguistics and Genetics. Springer Science + Business Media. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4020-5562-1  Quote: "Y-Chromosome and Mt-DNA data support the colonization of South Asia by modern humans originating in Africa. . . . Coalescence dates for most non-European populations average to between 73–55 ka."
  16. Cf. Fisher (2018), p. 23: "Scholars estimate that the first successful expansion of the Homo sapiens range beyond Africa and across the Arabian Peninsula occurred from as early as 80,000 years ago to as late as 40,000 years ago, although there may have been prior unsuccessful emigrations. Some of their descendants extended the human range ever further in each generation, spreading into each habitable land they encountered. One human channel was along the warm and productive coastal lands of the Persian Gulf and northern Indian Ocean. Eventually, various bands entered India between 75,000 years ago and 35,000 years ago."
  17. Petraglia et Allchin 2007: 6.
  18. Coningham et Young 2015: 104–105.
  19. Kulke et Rothermund 2004: 21–23.
  20. Coningham et Young 2015: 104–105.
  21. Singh 2009: 181.
  22. Posseh 2003: 2.
  23. Singh 2009: 181.

Bibliographia recensere

Generalia
Historia
  • Basham, Arthur L. 2009. El prodigio que fue India. Valentiae: Pre-Textos. ISBN 978-84-8191-950-9.
  • Brown, Judith M. 1994 Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy. Oxoniae et Novi Eboraci" Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-873113-2.
  • Guha, Ramchandra. 2007 India after Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy. Picador. ISBN 978-0-330-39610-3.
  • Kulke, Hermann, et Dietmar Rothermund. 2004 A History of India. ed. 4a. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32920-5.
  • Metcalf, Barbara, et Thomas R. Metcalf. 2006. A Concise History of Modern India. Cambridge Concise Histories. Cantabrigiae et Novi Eboraci: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-68225-8.
  • Spear, Percival. 1990. A History of India. Vol. 2. Novi Dellii et Londinii: Penguin Books ISBN 0-14-013836-6.
  • Stein, Burton. 2001. A History of India. Oxoniae et Novi Dellii: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-565446-3.
  • Thapar, Romila. 1990. A History of India. Vol. 1. Novi Dellii et Londinii: Penguin Books ISBN 0-14-013835-8.
  • Wolpert, Stanley. 2003. A New History of India. Oxoniae et Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516678-7.
Geographia
  • Dikshit, K. R., et Joseph E. Schwartzberg. 2009. India: The Land. In Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • Gubernatio Indiae. 2007. India Yearbook 2007. Divisio Publicationes, Ministerium Informationis Transmissiones. ISBN 81-230-1423-6.
  • Heitzman, J., et R. L. Worden. 1996. India: A Country Study. Vasingtonae: Bibliotheca Congressi CFA. ISBN 0-8444-0833-6.
  • Posey, C. A. 1994. The Living Earth Book of Wind and Weather. Reader's Digest Association. ISBN 0-89577-625-1.
Flora et fauna
Cultura
  • Dissanayake, Wimal K., et Moti Gokulsing. 2004. Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. ISBN 1-85856-329-1.
  • Vilanilam, John V. 2005. Mass Communication in India: A Sociological Perspective. Sage Publications. ISBN 0-7619-3372-7.

Nexus externi recensere

  Vide India apud Viciviam.
India : politica
Praesides Indiae
India : geographica
Civitates et territoria Indiae: nomina Anglica
Indiae urbes milies milium incolarum