'''Such''' has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The History of the Present King of Great-Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.
'''Ille''' noluit Assentiri Legibus quae tam salutariorae et necessariae essent ad Bonum publicum.
'''He''' has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public Good.
'''Ille''' vetavit suos Rectores cito approbare Leges de re repentina maximi Momenti, ut sine Effectu diu maneant, usque cum sua approbatio impetratur; et cum sic maneant, indiligenter eas assistere neglegit.
'''He''' has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing Importance, unless suspended in their Operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
'''Ille''' noluit alias Leges approbare ad magnos Pagos Gentium Accomodandos; nisi primum illae gentes Ius ad Repraesentationem in Coetu legifero relinquunt, quod Ius inaestimabile est eis et formidolosum Tyrannis solis.
'''He''' has refused to pass other Laws for the Accommodation of large Districts of People; unless those People would relinquish the Right of Representation in the Legislature, a Right inestimable to them, and formidable to Tyrants only.
'''Ille''' Corpora Legifera ad Locos convocavit insuetos, inconvenientes, et distantes a eorum Tabulariis publicis eo solo consilio, ut tandem defatigata Consultis suis Obtemperent.
'''He''' has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the Depository of their public Records, for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with his Measures.
'''Ille''' crebo Camaras Repraesentativas dissolvit, ob eas Fortiter suis Invasionibus in Ius Populi obstandas.
'''He''' has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly Firmness his Invasions on the Rights of the People.
'''Ille''' Diu noluit, post has Dissolutiones, efficere ut aliae alleguntur; quare Potestates Legiferae, quae deleri non potest, ad Populum circumdatum rediverunt ad eorum exercitium; illa Civitate iis temporibus aperta ad omnia Pericula Invasionis externis, et Convulsionum internarum.
'''He''' has refused for a long Time, after such Dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the Dangers of Invasion from without, and Convulsions within.
'''Ille''' conatus est prohibere ne gentes has Civitates Incolant; ubi ad hoc Propositum Leges Obstruxit, quibus Advenae Naturalizantur, Noluit ne alii Migrationes eorum huc citent, et Stipulationes sustulit, praeterquam novae Terrae Assignentur.
'''He''' has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for that Purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their Migrations hither, and raising the Conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
'''Ille''' Agenda Iustitiae obstruxit, negando assentiri Legibus quae Potestates Iudiciales statuunt.
'''He''' has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.
'''Ille''' effecit ut Iudices sola sua Voluntate suos Magistratus et Mercedes pensas Attineant.
'''He''' has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the Tenure of their Offices, and Amount and Payment of their Salaries.
'''Ille''' novorum Magistratuum Multitudinem instituit, Praefectorum Catervas mittens hue ad nostras Gentes infestandas eorumque Materiam edendam.
'''He''' has erected a Multitude of new Offices, and sent hither Swarms of Officers to harass our People, and eat out their Substance.
'''Ille''' apud nos, Pacis Temporibus, Exercitus Stativos tenuit, sine Consensu nostri Coeti legiferi.
'''He''' has kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armies, without the consent of our Legislature.
'''Ille''' affecit ut Milites fore sint Potestatibus Civilibus independentiores potioresque.
'''He''' has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.
'''Ille''' per alios conspiravit nos subicere ad Iuris dictionem nostrae Constitutioni alienam, et nostris Legibus ignotam; Assensus eorum commentis Actibus Legiferis:
'''He''' has combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
'''Ad''' Copias magnas Militum apud nos ponendas:
'''For''' quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us:
'''Ad''' eas per Iudicia ficta protegendas, ne Poeneantur quasquam ob Caedes quas facturae sunt in inhabitantes harum Civitatum:
'''For''' protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
'''Ad''' Commercium cum omnibus Mundi Partibus secandum:
'''For''' cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World:
'''Ad''' vectigalia in nos imponendia sine nostro Consensu:
'''For''' imposing taxes on us without our Consent:
'''Ad''' nos privandos, multis in Causis, a Iudiciorum per Consilia Benefactis:
'''For''' depriving us, in many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury:
'''Ad''' nos tranferendos ultra Maria ad iudicatum Criminum fictorum:
'''For''' transporting us beyond the Seas to be tried for pretended Offences:
'''Ad''' liberum Legum Anglicarum Systema abrogandum in Provincia vicinali, Rectionem ibi arbitrariam instituendam, et suos Fines augendos eo consilio, ut serviat sicut Exemplum et Instrumentum ad idem Regimen absolutum in has Colonias introducendum.
'''For''' abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an arbitrary Government, and enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an Example and fit Instrument for introducing the same absolute Rule in these Colonies:
'''Ad''' nostras Chartas fundatorias auferendas, nostras Leges caras abrogandas, et fundius nostrarum Rectionum Formas commutandas.
'''For''' taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
'''Ad''' nostros veros Legiferos coetos suspendendos, et se declarandos Potestates habere ut pro nobis undique leges ferant.
'''For''' suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with Powers to legislate for us in all Cases whatsoever.
'''Ille''' Regimen suum hic abdicavit, professando nos extra praesidium suum esse et contra nos Bellum gerendo.
'''He''' has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
'''Ille''' nostra maria depopulavit, nostras Oras populavit, nostra Oppida cremavit, et nostarum Gentium Vitas ruit.
'''He''' has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our Towns, and destroyed the Lives of our People.
'''Ille''' nunc ingentes Exercitus mercennarios ad Opera Mortium, Desolationum, et Tyrranidis perficenda transfert, quae, iam tam Crudele et Perfiditer incepta, par vix in Aetatibus barbaricissimis inveniantur, et quae indigna certe est Capiti humanae Nationis.
'''He''' is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to complete the Works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized Nation.
'''Ille''' nostros Cives altis Mariis Captos perpulit Armas gerrere contra propriam Civitatem eorum, ut Carnufices eorum amicorum et Fratrum fiant, aut ut se propriis Manibus cadant.
'''He''' has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners of their Friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
'''Ille''' domesticas Insurrectiones apud nos excitavit, et conatus est in nos Inhabitantes Finium nostrorum citare, cruellos Indos saevos, quibus notum Belli Praeceptum est absolutum Exitium hominum omnium Aetatum, Sexuum, et Statuum.
'''He''' has excited domestic Insurrections among us, and has endeavoured to bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known Rule of Warfare, is an undistinguished Destruction, of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions.
'''In''' omni harum Oppressionum gradu, Postulavimus ut quaerellas Condicionibus humilibus Satisfaciat: Nostris Petitionibus modo per Iniurias iteratas respondit. Princeps, cuius actus omnes Ingenium Tyranidis designant, non meruit liberem Populum Regnare.
'''In''' every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated Injury. A Prince, whose Character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the Ruler of a free People.
'''Nec''' nostros Fratres Britannicos ignoravimus. Illos interdum admonuimus de Legiferi coetus eorum Conatibus ad incommodam Iurisdictionem super nos tendendam. Eos monuimus de Occasione et re adiuncta cum Emigravimus et hic Incoluimus. Ad Iustitiam et Magnanimitatem eorum appellavimus, et coniuravimus Vinculis nostri Sanguinis communis ut has Usurpationes diffiteantur, quae tandem nostras Connexiones et Correspondentias irrupturae erant. Ei quoque erant surdi, nec Vocem Iustitiae et Consanguinitatis audiverunt. Debemus igitur acquiescere in Necessitate, quae Separationem nostram denuntiat, et eos habere, sicut omnes Mundi, Hostes in Bello, in Pace, Amicos.
'''Nor''' have we been wanting in Attentions to our British Brethren. We have warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature to extend an unwarrantable Jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here. We have appealed to their native Justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence. They too have been deaf to the Voice of Justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the Necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace, Friends.
'''Nos''', igitur, '''foederatis Americae Civitatibus''' Reprasentantes, in Congressu Generali, Coeti, ad Iudicem Summum Orbi Terrarum de nostrorum propositorum Rectitudine appellantes, in Nomine, et sub Auctoritate boni Populi harum Coloniarum, solemniter in lucem Edimus et Declaramus, has Foederatas Colonias esse, et de Iure debere fieri, Civitates Liberas, Suisque Viribus Innitentes; absolutas omnium Foederum cum Regno Britannico, omninoque dissolutas et disolvendas omnes Connexiones politicas inter eas et Civitatem Magnae Britanniae; et sicut Liberae Suisque Viribus Innitentes Civitates plenam Potestatem habent ad Bellum gerendum, Pacem concludendam, Foedera contrahenda, Commercium instituendum, et ad omnes alios Actos et Res agendas, quas Civitates Liberae sui iuris agere possunt. Et ad hanc Declarationem sustinendam, constanter in Praesidio divinae Providentiae confidentes, abinvicem alter alterum spondemus nostras Vitas, Divitias, et sacram Honestatem.
'''We''', therefore, the Representatives of the '''united States of America''', in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the Rectitude of our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by the Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and Declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, Free and Independent States; that they are absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political Connection between them and the State of Great-Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm Reliance on the Protection of the divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.
Subscriptum per IUSSUM<br>
CONGRESSUS et PRO EO<br>
Signed by ORDER and<br>
in BEHALF OF THE CONGRESS<br>
PRINTED BY JOHN DUNLAP.
[[de:s:Unabhängigkeitserklärung der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika]]