Quantum redactiones paginae "Humanitarium belli ius" differant

Summarium vacuum
{{L}} {{In progressu}}
'''Ius gentium humanitarium''' est pars iuris gentium in bello applicabilis.
'''Humanitarium belli ius''' est [[ius inter civitates et gentes|iuris inter civitates et gentes]] pars, quae civitatum et militum actus in bello regit. Haec iura, quod licitum et quod illicitum est in bello dicens, specialiter ad bellicorum actionum victimas, paganos, vulneratos, et captivos spectant.
 
Dicit quod licitum et quod illicitum est in bello, spectans specialiter bellicorum actionum victimae.
 
==Fontes iurum==
== Genavae Conventionis ==
Humanitarium belli ius erga omnes applicabile, habet multicabiles fontes in iure inter gentes, inter quas sunt:
 
*Declaratio Lutetiensis de iuri maritimo, anno [[1856]] pacta, quam praedonem maritimam abrogavit
Ius gentium humanitarium erga omnes validitatem habet. In IV '''[[Genava]]e Conventionibus''' codificatum est et in II Additamentis :
*Conventus Genavenses quattuor cum duobus protocollis additis, omnes annis [[1864]] – [[1977]] facti
* Ia Genavae Conventio, ad sauciorum et aegrotorum, intra militias bellum facientes, fatum meliorandum, 12 Augusti a.D. 1949
*Conventus Hagenses, annis [[1899]] –[[1954]] facti
* IIa Genavae Conventio, ad sauciorum et aegrotorum et naufragarum, intra classes militares maritimas, fatum meliorandum, 12 Augusti a.D. 1949
*Charta Nationum Consociationis, die [[24 Octobris]] [[1945]] assignata
* IIIa Genavae Conventio, de captivorum in bello tractatione, 12 Augusti a.D. 1949
*Fundamenta humanitarii belli iuris Crucis Rubrae, anno [[1978]] assignata
* IVa Genavae Conventio, de civilium personarum in belli tempore protectione, 12 Augusti a.D. 1949
*Principia Nurembergensia, ex conventu numero 177 Consociationis Nationum die [[21 Novembris]] [[1947]] editum
* Additamentum ad Genavae Conventiones, de victimarum in bello internationali protectione, 8 Junii a.D. 1977.
*Conventus de genocidii criminis preventione et castigatione, anno [[1948]] a Consociatione Nationum editus
* Additamentum ad Genavae Conventiones, de victimarum in bello civili protectione, 8 Junii a.D. 1977.
<!-- copied from wikipedia:
List of declarations, conventions, treaties and judgements and on the laws of war:<ref>Roberts and Guelff [[#References|References]]</ref><ref>[[ICRC]][http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/INTRO?OpenView Treaties & Documents by date]</ref><ref>Joan T. Phillips. ''[http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/loac/loac.htm List of documents and web links relating to the law of armed conflict in air and space operations]'', May 2006. Bibliographer, Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center Maxwell (United States) Air Force Base, Alabama.</ref>
* 1856 [[Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law]] abolished [[privateering]]
* 1864 [[First Geneva Convention]] "for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field"
* 1868 [[St. Petersburg Declaration (1868)|St. Petersburg Declaration]] Renouncing the Use, in Time of War, of Explosive projectiles Under 400 Grammes Weight
* 1874 Project of an International Declaration concerning the Laws and Customs of War ([[Brussels Declaration]]).<ref>[http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/135?OpenDocument Project of an International Declaration concerning the Laws and Customs of War. Brussels], [[27 August]] 1874</ref> Signed in Brussels [[27 August]]. This agreement never entered into force, but formed part of the basis for the codification of the laws of war at the 1899 [[Hague Peace Conference (1899)|Hague Peace Conference]].<ref>[http://www.sipri.org/contents/cbwarfare/cbw_research_doc/cbw_historical/cbw_historical/cbw-lawswar.html Brussels Conference of 1874 - International Declaration Concerning Laws and Customs of War] [[Stockholm International Peace Research Institute]] Project on Chemical and Biological Warfare</ref><ref name=ICRC-1874>[http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/INTRO/135?OpenDocument Brussels Conference of 1874] [[ICRC]] cites D.Schindler and J.Toman, The Laws of Armed Conflicts, Martinus Nihjoff Publisher, 1988, pp.22-34.</ref>
*1880 Manual of the Laws and Customs of War at [[Oxford]]. At its session in Geneva in 1874 the [[Institute of International Law]] appointed a committee to study the ''Brussels Declaration'' of the same year and to submit to the Institute its opinion and supplementary proposals on the subject. The work of the Institute led to the adoption of the Manual in 1880 and it went on to form part of the basis for the codification of the laws of war at the 1899 Hague Peace Conference.<ref name=ICRC-1874/>
*1899 [[Hague Conventions (1899)|Hague Conventions]] consisted of four main sections and three additional declarations (the final main section is for some reason identical to the first additional declaration):
** I - Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
** II - Laws and Customs of War on Land
** III - Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of Principles of Geneva Convention of 1864
** IV - Prohibiting Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons
** Declaration I - On the Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons
** Declaration II - On the Use of Projectiles the Object of Which is the Diffusion of Asphyxiating or Deleterious Gases
** Declaration III - On the Use of Bullets Which Expand or Flatten Easily in the Human Body
*1907 [[Hague Conventions (1907)|Hague Conventions]] had thirteen sections, of which twelve were ratified and entered into force and two declarations
** I - The Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
** II - The Limitation of Employment of Force for Recovery of Contract Debts
** III - The Opening of Hostilities
** IV - The Laws and Customs of War on Land
** V - The Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land
** VI - The Status of Enemy Merchant Ships at the Outbreak of Hostilities
** VII - The Conversion of Merchant Ships into War-Ships
** VIII - The Laying of Automatic Submarine Contact Mines
** IX - Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War
** X - Adaptation to Maritime War of the Principles of the Geneva Convention
** XI - Certain Restrictions with Regard to the Exercise of the Right of Capture in Naval War
** XII - The Creation of an International Prize Court [Not Ratified]*
** XIII - The Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War
** Declaration I - extending Declaration II from the 1899 Conference to other types of aircraft
** Declaration II - on the obligatory arbitration
* 1909 [[London Declaration concerning the Laws of Naval War]] largely reiterated existing law, although it showed greater regard to the rights of neutral entities. Never went into effect.
* 1922 The [[Washington Naval Treaty]], also known as the ''Five-Power Treaty'' ([[6 February]])
* 1923 Hague Draft Rules of Aerial Warfare<ref>[http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1918p/hagair.html The Hague Rules of Air Warfare], 1922-12 to 1923-02, ''this convention was never adopted''' ([http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/interwar/hagair.htm backup site])</ref>
* 1925 Geneva protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare<ref>[http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/280?OpenDocument Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare]. Geneva, [[17 June]] 1925.</ref>
* 1927-1930 [[Greco-German arbitration tribunal]]
* 1928 [[Kellogg-Briand Pact]] (also known as the ''Pact of Paris'')
* 1928 [[League of Nations]] declaration for the "Protection of Civilian Populations Against Bombing From the Air in Case of War"<ref>[http://www.dannen.com/decision/int-law.html#D Protection of Civilian Populations Against Bombing From the Air in Case of War], Unanimous resolution of the League of Nations Assembly, [[30 September]] 1938</ref>
* 1928 Amsterdam Draft Convention for the Protection of Civilian Populations Against New Engines of War.<ref>[http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/0/910f79361f226492c125641e004057ed?OpenDocument Draft Convention for the Protection of Civilian Populations Against New Engines of War. Amsterdam], 1938</ref>
* 1929 [[Geneva Convention, Relative to the treatment of prisoners of war (1929)|Geneva Convention, Relative to the treatment of prisoners of war]]
* 1930 Treaty for the Limitation and Reduction of Naval Armament ([[London Naval Treaty]] [[22 April]])
* 1936 [[Second London Naval Treaty]] ([[25 March]])
* 1945 [[United Nations Charter]] (entered into force on [[October 24]], 1945)
* 1946 Judgment of the International [[Nuremberg Tribunal|Military Tribunal at Nuremberg]]
* 1947 [[Nuremberg Principles]]. formulated under [[UN General Assembly Resolution 177]] 21 November 1947
* 1948 [[United Nations]] [[Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide]].
* 1949 [[First Geneva Convention|Geneva Convention I for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field]]
* 1949 [[Second Geneva Convention|Geneva Convention II for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea]]
* 1949 [[Third Geneva Convention|Geneva Convention III Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War]]
* 1949 [[Fourth Geneva Convention|Geneva Convention IV Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War]]
* 1954 [[Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict]]
* 1971 Zagreb Resolution of the Institute of International Law on Conditions of Application of Humanitarian Rules of Armed Conflict to Hostilities in which the United Nations Forces May be Engaged
* 1977 United Nations [[Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques]]
* 1977 [[Geneva Protocol I]] Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts
* 1977 [[Geneva Protocol II]] Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts
* 1978 Red Cross Fundamental Rules of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts
* 1980 United Nations [[Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons|Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects]] (CCW)
** 1980 Protocol I on Non-Detectable Fragments
** 1980 Protocol II on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices
** 1980 Protocol III on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Incendiary Weapons
** 1995 Protocol IV on Blinding Laser Weapons
** 1996 Amended Protocol II on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices
** Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War (Protocol V to the 1980 Convention), 28 November 2003, entered into force on [[12 November]] 2006<ref>[http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/section_ihl_explosive_remnants_of_war#Key%20document Explosive remnants of war and international humanitarian law] on the website of the [[International Committee of the Red Cross]]</ref>
* 1994 San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea.<ref>by Louise Doswald-Beck ''[http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/57JMST San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflict at Sea]'' [[31 December]] 1995 [[International Review of the Red Cross]] no 309, p.583-594 </ref>
* 1994 ICRC/UNGA Guidelines for Military Manuals and Instructions on the Protection of the Environment in Time of Armed Conflict<ref>[http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/57JN38 Guidelines for Military Manuals and Instructions on the Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict] [[30 April]] 1996 [[International Review of the Red Cross]] no 311, p.230-237 </ref>
* 1994 UN Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel<ref>[http://www.un.org/law/cod/safety.htm Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel]</ref>
* 1996 The [[International Court of Justice]] [[advisory opinion]] on the [[Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons]]
* 1997 [[Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction]] (Ottawa Treaty)
* 1998 [[Rome Statute]] of the [[International Criminal Court]]
 
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[[Crux rubra]] est emblema protectionis neutrale in bello pro sauciis et aegrotis. Crux rubra etiam nomen est societatis huic protectioni deditae.
==Declaratio [[Lutetia|Lutetiensis]]==
 
==Conventus [[Genava|Genavenses]]==
Fere omnes res publicae ratificaverunt IV Genavae Conventiones et multae Additamentum unum vel duo.
 
* I Conventus Genavensis, ad sauciorum et aegrotorum, intra militias bellum facientes, fatum meliorandum, 12 Augusti a.D. 1949
* II Conventus Genavensis, ad sauciorum et aegrotorum et naufragarum, intra classes militares maritimas, fatum meliorandum, 12 Augusti a.D. 1949
* III Conventus Genavensis, de captivorum in bello tractatione, 12 Augusti a.D. 1949
* IV Conventus Genavensis, de civilium personarum in belli tempore protectione, 12 Augusti a.D. 1949
* Protocollum additum I ad Conventiones Genavenses, de victimarum in bello internationali protectione, 8 Junii a.D. 1977.
* Protocollum additum I ad Conventiones Genavenses, de victimarum in bello civili protectione, 8 Junii a.D. 1977.
 
Prima Genavae Conventio scripta ratificataque est a.D. 1864, impulsu [[Henricus Dunant|Henrici Dunant]] et [[Guilhelmi Henrici Dufour|Guilhelmus Henricus Dufour]], necnon [[Helvetia|Confoederationis Helveticae]]. Postea usque hodie fere omnes civitates illas quattuor Genavae Conventiones ratificaverunt, et multae quoque additamentum unum et duo.
 
==Conventus [[Haga|Hagenses]]==
 
==Charta Nationum Consociationis==
 
==Crux rubra==
[[Crux rubra]] est emblema protectionis neutrale in bello pro sauciis et aegrotis. Crux rubra etiam nomen est societatis huic protectioni deditae.
 
==Principia Nurembergensia==
Prima Genavae Conventio scripta ratificataque est a.D. 1864, impulsu [[Henricus Dunant|Henrici Dunant]] et Guilhelmi Henrici Dufour, necnon Confoederationis Helveticae.
==Conventus de genocidii criminis preventione et castigatione==
 
[[categoria:Iurisprudentiae]]
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