Quantum redactiones paginae "Particula elementaris" differant

Summarium vacuum
In [[Physica particularum elementarium|physicā particularum]], '''particula elementaris'''<ref>Emanuel Swedenborg, ''Opera philosophica et mineralia''</ref> vel '''fundamentalis''' [[particula subatomica]] substructurā carens est, scilicet, aliis e particulis non constat.<ref name="Braibant">Braibant, Silvia (Sylvie); Giacomelli, Georgius (Giorgio); Spurio, Mauritius (Maurizio) (2012). ''[https://books.google.es/books?id=e8YUUG2pGeIC&pg=PA384&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false Particles and Fundamental Interactions: An introduction to particle physics]'' (secunda editio) (Anglice). Springer. ISBN 978-94-007-2463-1.</ref> Particulae quae in praesenti elementares esse habentur sunt fundamentales [[fermion]]es ([[quarcum|quarca]], [[lepton]]es, [[antiquarcum|antiquarca]] et [[antilepton]]es), qui plerumque "particulae [[Materia (physica)|materiae]] ac [[antimateria]]e"; non minus quam fundamentales [[boson]]es ([[boson|bosones vires adferentes]] ([[Anglice]]: ''gauge bosons'')<ref>{{cite book | author=Gribbin, John | title=Q is for Quantum: An Encyclopedia of Particle Physics | publisher=Simon & Schuster | year=2000 | isbn=0-684-85578-X}}.</ref><ref>{{cite book | author=Clark, John, E.O. | title=The Essential Dictionary of Science | publisher=Barnes & Noble | year=2004 | isbn=0-7607-4616-8}}.</ref> et [[boson Higgsianus]]<ref>[http://www.alcuinus.net/ephemeris/scientiae.php?id=1103| Ephemeris: ''De bosone Higgsiano comperto'', 8 Iulii 2012]</ref>), quae plerumque "particulae vis" [[vires fundamentales|interactiones]] inter fermiones mediantes sunt.<ref name="Braibant">Braibant, Silvia (Sylvie); Giacomelli, Georgius (Giorgio); Spurio, Mauritius (Maurizio) (2012). ''[https://books.google.es/books?id=e8YUUG2pGeIC&pg=PA384&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false Particles and Fundamental Interactions: An introduction to particle physics]'' (secunda editio) (Anglice). Springer. ISBN 978-94-007-2463-1.</ref> Particula duas aut plures particulas elementares continens [[particula composita]] nuncupatur.
 
[[Materia (physica)|Materia]] ordinaria ex [[atomus|atomis]] constat, quondam coniectis particulis elementaribus —reverā vocabulum ''ἄτομος'' "individuus" [[Graece]] significat—, quamquam atomi exsistentia controversa usque ad annum [[1905]] manebatur, quoniam aliqui praecipui physici [[molecula]]s mathematicas simulationes et materiam ultimatim ex [[energia|energiā]] constantem habebant.<ref name="Braibant">Braibant, Silvia (Sylvie); Giacomelli, Georgius (Giorgio); Spurio, Mauritius (Maurizio) (2012). ''[https://books.google.es/books?id=e8YUUG2pGeIC&pg=PA384&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false Particles and Fundamental Interactions: An introduction to particle physics]'' (secunda editio) (Anglice). Springer. ISBN 978-94-007-2463-1.</ref><ref>Newburgh, Ronaldus (Ronald); Peidle, Iosephus (Joseph); Rueckner, Volfgangus (Wolfgang) (2006). [https://web.archive.org/web/20170803105918/https://physlab.lums.edu.pk/images/f/fe/Ref1.pdf "Einstein, Perrin, and the reality of atoms: 1905 revisited"] (PDF) (Anglice). ''[American Journal of Physics]''. '''74''' (6): 478–481. Bibcode:2006AmJPh..74..478N. doi:10.1119/1.2188962. Archivatum [https://physlab.lums.edu.pk/images/f/fe/Ref1.pdf ex originali PDF] die 3 Augusti anni 2017. Inspectum die 17 Augusti anni 2013.</ref> Subatomicae atomi partes primitus ineuntibus annis 1930 —[[electron]] et [[proton]] iuxta cum [[photon]]e, [[Radiatio electromagnetica|radiationis electromagneticae]] particulā— identificae sunt.<ref name="Braibant">Braibant, Silvia (Sylvie); Giacomelli, Georgius (Giorgio); Spurio, Mauritius (Maurizio) (2012). ''[https://books.google.es/books?id=e8YUUG2pGeIC&pg=PA384&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false Particles and Fundamental Interactions: An introduction to particle physics]'' (secunda editio) (Anglice). Springer. ISBN 978-94-007-2463-1.</ref> In illo tempore, recens [[Mechanica quantica|mechanicae quanticae]] adventus particularum conceptionem radicitus mutabat, sicuticum unica particula ficte modo undae campum transire posset, paradoxum idoneam explanationem adhuc eludens.<ref>Weinert, Friedel (2004). ''[https://books.google.es/books?id=E0NRcFEjvU4C&pg=PA43&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false The Scientist as Philosopher: Philosophical consequences of great scientific discoveries]'' (Anglice). Springer. pp. 43, 57–59. Bibcode:2004sapp.book.....W. ISBN 978-3-540-20580-7.</ref><ref name="Kuhlmann"> Kuhlmann, Meinard (die 24 Iulii anni 2013). [https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/physicists-debate-whether-world-made-of-particles-fields-or-something-else/ "Physicists debate whether the world is made of particles or fields – or something else entirely"] (Anglice). ''[[Scientific American]]''.</ref>
 
Olim physici habebant particulas elementares esse omnes istas particulas subatomicas:
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