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=== Physiologia ===
Quando [[infectio]] prodit cellulae systematis immunitatis, ut [[monocytus|monocyti]], [[macrophagocytus|macrophagocyti]] receptoria peculiaria, ''receptoria exempla cognoscendorum'' (Anglice ''Pattern Recognition Receptors'', ''PRR'') enim, exprimunt: et superficie [[membrana cellulae|membranae]] et intra cellulam.
 
Haec ''PRR''′ia modo duo genera stimulorum cognoscunt: ''PAMP'' vel ''DAMP''. ''PAMP'' est abbreviatura Anglica "pathogenis sociatorum exemplorum molecularis" (''pathogen-associated molecular patterns''), quae sunt partes ''corpori alienae'', per exemplum lipopolysaccharidi bacteriorum. Pluribus exemplis alienis receptoria propria ex familia [[receptorium typi Toll instar|receptoriorum typi Toll instar]] (abbreviatura internationalis: ''TLR'') superficie cellulae sunt; Exemplum [[Flagellum (biologia)|flagella bacterialia]] per [[receptorium typi Toll instar 5|TLR 5]] superficie membranae cellularum immunitatis recognoscuntur<ref>{{cite journal |authors=Rumbo M., Nempont C., Kraehenbuhl J. P., Sirard J. C. |title=Mucosal interplay among commensal and pathogenic bacteria: lessons from flagellin and Toll-like receptor 5 |journal=FEBS Lett |year=2006 |volume=580 |issue=12 |pages=2976-84 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16650409}}.</ref>. ''DAMP'' sunt "vastitatibus sociata exempla molecularia" (''damage-associated molecular patterns''), quae sunt partes cellularum vulneratarum ''corporis poprii'' denaturatae: Quando damnum cellularum prodit, organella ex cellula liberata signum initii inflammationis fient<ref>{{cite journal |authors=Rubartelli A., Lotze M. T. |title=Inside, outside, upside down: damage-associated molecular-pattern molecules (DAMPs) and redox |journal=Curr Opin Immunol |year=2007 |volume=23 |issue=5 |pages=591-7 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17845865}}.</ref>.
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