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(Grammatica. Stipula non iam est.)
 
 
== Anatomia ==
[[Fasciculus:KidneyStructures PioM.svg|thumb|250px|left|Structura '''renis'''
<center>
1.&nbsp;[[Pyramis renalis]] •
In hominibus uterque ren post [[Cavitas abdominis|cavitatem abdominis]] in utroque [[columna vertebralis|columnae vertebralis]] latere in suprema parte [[spatium retroperitoneale|spatii retroperitonealis]] situs est. ''Cortex'' unius centimetri crassitudine in superficie iacet et [[glomerulum|glomerula]] necnon tubulos proximales distalesque continet. Fluxus sanguinis huc maxime fit, circiter 90% renis toti.
''Medulla'', in profundo, ex 8 ad 18 pyramidibus renalibus composita est basibus pyramidum in corticem directis. Apices (sive ''papillae'') pyramidum quippe in pelvem renalem, quae in medio est et urinam colligit, directi sunt.<ref>Franciscus H. Netter et Eckehard Renner (1983): ''Farbatlanten der Medizin.'' tomus 2: ''Niere und Harnwege.''. Stutgardiae, Thieme. ISBN 3-13-524102-5.</ref>
 
=== Embryologia (nephrogenesis) ===
Proceationis renium cellulae et [[mesenchyma|mesenchymales]] et [[epithelium|epitheliales]] necesse sunt<ref>{{cite journal |authors=Faa G., Gerosa C., Fanni D., Monga G., Zaffanello M., Van Eyken P., Fanos V. |title=Morphogenesis and molecular mechanisms involved in human kidney development |journal=Journal of cellular physiology |year=2012 |month=Mar |volume=227 |issue=3 |pages=1257-68 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21830217/}}</ref>. Gradus quinque temporalis descripti sunt:
# gemma ureterica primaria
# creatio mesenchmatis
# transitus mesenchma-epithelium
# glomurolgenesis et tubulogenesis
# cellulae interstitiales
 
== Physiologia ==
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