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(Created by translating the page "Quaternary")
 
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'''Quaternary''' (<small> </small><span class="IPA nopopups noexcerpt">/<span style="border-bottom:1px dotted"><span title="'k' in 'kind'">k</span><span title="'w' in 'wind'">w</span><span title="/ə/: 'a' in 'about'">ə</span><span title="/ˈ/: primary stress follows">ˈ</span><span title="'t' in 'tie'">t</span><span title="/ɜːr/: 'ur' in 'fur'">ɜːr</span><span title="'n' in 'nigh'">n</span><span title="/ər/: 'er' in 'letter'">ər</span><span title="/i/: 'y' in 'happy'">i</span></span>/</span>{{IPAc-en|pron|k|w|ə|ˈ|t|ɜr|n|ər|i}}) is the current and most recent of the three periods of the [[Kaenozoicum|Cenozoic]] Era in the [[Aevum geologicum|geologic time scale]] of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).<ref name="ICS2013">{{Cite web|last=Cohen|last1=Cohen|last2=Finney|last3=Gibbard|last4=Fan|first=K.M.|first1=K.M.|first2=S.C.|first3=P.L.|first4=J.-X.|title=International Chronostratigraphic Chart 2013|url=http://www.stratigraphy.org/icschart/chronostratchart2013-01.pdf|accessdate=15 June 2014|publisher=ICS|ref=ICS2013}}</ref> It follows the [[Neogenicum|Neogene]] Period and spans from 2.588&nbsp;± 0.005 million years ago to the present. The Quaternary Period is divided into two epochs: the [[Pleistocaenum|Pleistocene]] (2.588 million years ago to 11.7 thousand years ago) and the [[Holocaenum|Holocene]] (11.7 thousand years ago to today). The informal term "Late Quaternary" refers to the past 0.5–1.0 million years.<ref>[https://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/glossary/?term=Late%20Quaternary Earthquake Glossary - Late Quaternary] U.S. Geological Survey</ref>
'''Quaternarium'''<ref>Aloysius Meschinelli, ''Fungorum fossilium omnium hucusque cognitorum iconographia, XXXI tabulis exornata'' (Vicetiae: 1902), [https://books.google.com/books?id=IA9HAQAAMAAJ&pg=PR6 p. vi].</ref> est praesens et recentissimum [[aevum]] (seu periodus) [[Kaenozoicum|aerae Caenozoicae]], secundum [[aevum geologicum|scalam temporis geologici]] [[Mandatum inter civitates de stratigraphia|Mandati inter civitates de stratigraphia]]{{Convertimus}} (ICS).<ref name="ICS2013">{{Cite web|last=Cohen|last1=Cohen|last2=Finney|last3=Gibbard|last4=Fan|first=K.M.|first1=K.M.|first2=S.C.|first3=P.L.|first4=J.-X.|title=International Chronostratigraphic Chart 2013|url=http://www.stratigraphy.org/icschart/chronostratchart2013-01.pdf|accessdate=15 June 2014|publisher=ICS|ref=ICS2013}}</ref> [[Neogenicum]] aevum sequitur; abhinc 2.588&nbsp;± 0.005 [[millio]]nes annorum coepit et etiamnnunc pergit. Quaternarium in duas [[epochas]] dividitur: [[Pleistocaenum]] (quod coepit abhinc 2.588 milliones annorum et finivit abhinc 11.7 milia annorum) et [[Holocaenum]] (quod coepit abhinc 11.7 milia annorum et pergit hodie). Vox non rite definita, "quaternarium inferius", significat ultimos 0.5–1.0 milliones annorum.<ref>[https://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/glossary/?term=Late%20Quaternary Earthquake Glossary - Late Quaternary] U.S. Geological Survey</ref>
 
== See alsoNotae ==
The Quaternary Period is typically defined by the cyclic growth and decay of continental ice sheets associated with Milankovitch cycles and the associated climate and environmental changes that occurred.<ref name="Denton2010">{{Cite journal|last=Denton|last1=Denton|last2=Anderson|last3=Toggweiler|last4=Edwards|last5=Schaefer|last6=Putnam|first1=G.H.|first=G.H.|first2=R.F.|first3=J.R.|first4=R.L.|first5=J.M.|first6=A.E.|date=2010|title=The Last Glacial Termination|journal=Science|volume=328|pages=1652–1656|doi=10.1126/science.1184119|DOI=10.1126/science.1184119|ref=Denton2010}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|last=Lowe|last1=Lowe|last2=Walker|first1=J.J.|first=J.J.|first2=M.J.C.|date=1997|title=Reconstructing Quaternary Environments|publisher=Routledge|isbn=0582101662|ISBN=0582101662}}</ref>
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== ResearchExternal historylinks ==
{{CommuniaCat|Quaternary|Quaternarium}}
The term Quaternary ("fourth") was proposed by Giovanni Arduino in 1759 for alluvial deposits in the [[Padus|Po River]] valley in northern [[Italia|Italy]]. It was introduced by Jules Desnoyers in 1829 for sediments of [[Francia|France]]'s [[Sequana|Seine]] Basin that seemed clearly to be younger than Tertiary Period [[Lapis (geologia)|rocks]].<ref>{{Cite web|title=Late Quaternary Fluvial and Coastal Sequences Chapter 1: Introduction|url=http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/77123/8/08_chapter%201.pdf|accessdate=March 26, 2017|access-date=March 26, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{Citation|title=Quaternary - Video Learning - WizScience.com|last=Wiz Science™|date=2015-09-28|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Io7vhansU1o|access-date=2017-03-26|accessdate=2017-03-26}}</ref>
* [http://www.quaternary.stratigraphy.org.uk/ Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy] (Mandatum secundarium de stratigraphia quaternaria]
 
{{Aeva geologica}}
== Journals relating to the Quaternary Period ==
* Boreas - An International Journal of Quaternary Research
* Geografiska Annaler (only the title is in [[Lingua Suecica|Swedish]])
* Journal of Quaternary Science
* Quaternary Geochronology
* Quaternary International
* Quaternary Research
* Quaternary Science Reviews
* The Quaternary Times
 
== See also ==
* List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions
* Quaternary extinction event
* Quaternary science
 
== References ==
{{reflist}}
 
== External links ==
* [http://www.quaternary.stratigraphy.org.uk/ Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy]
* [http://www.quaternary.stratigraphy.org.uk/correlation/chart.html Global correlation tables for the Quaternary]
* Gibbard, P.L., S. Boreham, K.M. Cohen and A. Moscariello, 2005, [http://www.quaternary.stratigraphy.org.uk/correlation/POSTERSTRAT_BOREAS_v2005c.pdf ''Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years v. 2005c.''], PDF version 220 KB. Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England
* Gibbard, P.L., S. Boreham, K.M. Cohen and A. Moscariello, 2007, [http://www.quaternary.stratigraphy.org.uk/correlation/POSTERSTRAT_v2007b_small.jpg ''Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years v. 2007b.''], jpg version 844 KB. Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England
* Silva, P.G. C. Zazo, T. Bardají, J. Baena, J. Lario, A. Rosas, J. Van der Made. 2009, «[https://web.archive.org/web/20120626140850/http://tierra.rediris.es/aequa/doc/tabla_aequav2_2009.pdf Tabla Cronoestratigrafíca del Cuaternario en la Península Ibérica - V.2]». [Versión PDF, 3.6 Mb]. Asociación Española para el Estudio del Cuaternario (AEQUA), Departamento de Geología, [[Universitas Studii Salmanticensis|Universidad de Salamanca]], Spain. (Corelation chart of European Quaternary and cultural stages and fossils)
* [http://ice.tsu.ru/index.php?view=category&catid=27&option=com_joomgallery&Itemid=40 Welcome to the XVIII INQUA-Congress, Bern, 2011]
* {{commons category-inline|Quaternary}}
[[Categoria:Kaenozoicum]]
[[Categoria:Aeva geologica]]
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