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'''Niger'''<ref>"[http://www.uni-mannheim.de/mateo/camenaref/hofmann/hof3/s0322a.html Niger]" et "[http://www.uni-mannheim.de/mateo/camenaref/hofmann/hof3/s0323a.html Nigir seu Niger, Nigris, et Nigres]" in {{Lexfons}}</ref><ref>"Niger fl." in tabula ''Africae Tabula Nova'' ab [[Abraham Ortelius|Abrahamo Ortelio]] facta ([[Antverpia]]e, [[1570]]).</ref> est principale [[Africa Occidentalis|Africae Occidentalis]] [[flumen]]. Circa 4180 [[chiliometrum|chiliometrorum]] extenditur per [[pelvis hydrographica|pelvem hydrographicam]] cuius [[area (geometria)|area]] 2&thinsp;117&thinsp;700 [[chiliometrum quadratum|chiliometrorum quadratorum]] est.<ref>Gleick 2000:33.</ref> Fons in [[Terrae Altae Guineae|Terris Altis Guineae]] in [[Guinea]] meridio-orientali patet, unde flumen [[crescens|crescentem]] describitur per [[Malium]], [[Niger|Nigrum]], secundum fines [[Beninum|Benini]], et tum per [[Nigeria]]m, cum per magnum [[delta fluviatilis|delta]], [[Delta Niger]] et [[Flumina Petrolei]] appellatum, per [[Sinus Guineae|Sinum Guineae]] in [[Oceanus Atlanticus|Oceanum Atlanticum]] defluit. Niger [[longitudo|longitudine]] est [[tres|tertium]] [[Africa]]e flumen, solum a [[Nilus|Nilo]] et [[Congo (flumen)|Congo]] (etiam Flumen Zaïre appellatum) exsuperatum. Praecipuus [[tributarius]] est [[Flumen Benue]].
 
== Etymologia ==
Niger ''Jeliba'' vel ''Joliba'' 'magnum flumen' in [[linguae Mandingianae|linguis Mandingianis]], ''Orimiri'' vel ''Orimili'' 'magna aqua' in [[lingua Igbo|Igbo]], ''Egerew n-Igerewen'' 'flumen fluminum' in [[linguae Tuareg|Tuareg]], ''Isa Ber'' 'magnum flumen' in [[linguae Songhay|Songhay]], ''[[Kwara]]'' in [[lingua Hausa|Hausa]], et ''Oya'' in [[lingua Yoruba|Yoruba]] appellatur. Incerta est origo [[nomen proprium|nominis]] ''Nigri,'' primum solum ad medias fluminis [[regio]]nes adhibiti. Veri simile est nomen ''Nigrum'' in [[lingua Latina]] et aliis [[lingua|linguis]] deductum esse ex ''egerew n-igerewen'' nomine Tuareg, secundum medias fluminis partes circa [[Tombutum]] adhibitum.<ref>Nomen Arabicum ''nahr al-anhur'' ex Tuareg recte convertitur.</ref><ref>[http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Niger Online Etymological Dictionary.]</ref> Tombutum, quia in finibus australibus principalis [[via]]e [[commercium trans-Saharanum|commercii trans-Saharani]] ad [[Mare Mediterraneum]] [[occidens|occidentale]] iacet, fuit fons plurimi [[Europa]]eae fluminis [[regio]]nis doctrinae.
 
== Geographia ==
Flumen Niger est multis fluminibus clarius: [[decem|decimam]] tantum partem [[sedimentum|sedimenti]] [[Nilus|Nili]] fert, quia terrae eius fontium<!--its headlands--> in [[saxum|saxis]] antiquis sitae sunt, quae minimum [[limus|limum]] praebent.<ref name="Reader, p. 191">{{harvnb|Reader|2001|p=191}}</ref> Sicut Nilus, Niger quotannis [[inundatio|inundatur]]. [[Aqua]]e [[September|Septembre]] oriri incipiunt, fastigium [[November|Novembre]] habent, ante [[Maius|Maium]] finiuntur.<ref name="Reader, p. 191"/>
 
Inusitata fluminis proprietas est [[Delta Niger Interior]], quod ubi eius [[gradiens]] subito imminuitur fit.<ref name="Reader, p. 191"/> Effectus est [[regio]] [[flumina intertexta|fluminum intertextorum]]<!--braided stream-->, [[palus|paludinum]], [[lacus|lacuumque]] tam [[magnitudo|magna]] quam [[Belgium]]; inundationes tempestivae faciunt ut delta
[[piscatus|piscatui]] et [[agricultura]]e sit uberrima.<ref>{{harvnb|Reader|2001|pp=191–192}}</ref>
 
== Pinacotheca: tabulae ==
<gallery>
Fasciculus:Africa map 1508.png|Tabula [[Lusitania|Lusitana]] anni [[1508]]
*[[Azawagh]]-->
 
== Notae ==
<references />
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== Bibliographia ==
[[Fasciculus:Mali.A2001291.1045.250m.jpg|thumb|Despectus ex [[spatium|spatio]] in magnum Fluminis Nigri flexum, qui arcum [[viridis|viridem]] per [[fuscus|fuscum]] [[Sahel]] et [[savanna]]e facit. Massa viridis ad laevam est [[Delta Niger Interior]]; ad extremam laevam sunt [[tributarius|tributarii]] [[Flumen Senegalense|Fluminis Senegalensis]].]]
[[Fasciculus:Niger River Center Island.jpg|thumb|[[Domus]] lutulenti in media [[insula]] in [[Lacus Debo|Lacu Debo]], lata Fluminis Nigri parte, patent.]]
[[Fasciculus:Mungo Park miniature.jpg|thumb|150px|[[Mungo Park]] iuvenis. Miniatura, pictor ignotus.]]
* Boyle, T. C. [[1981]]. ''Water Music.'' Mythistoria de Mungo Park, [[explorator]]e [[Scotia|Scotico]].
* Gleick, Peter H. [[2000]]. ''The World's Water, 2000-2001: The Biennial Report on Freshwater.'' Island Press. ISBN 15596379271-55963-792-7. [http://books.google.com/books?id=b61zOkAs5NcC Google Books].
* Obert, Michael. [[2010]]. ''Regenzauber: Auf dem Niger ins Innere Afrikas." Ed. 5a. National Geographic. ISBN 389405249X3-89405-249-X.
* Reader, John. [[2001]]. ''Africa.'' Vasingtoniae, D.C.: National Geographic Society. ISBN 06202550640-620-25506-4.
* Thomson, J. Oliver. [[1948]]. ''History of Ancient Geography.'' Biblo & Tannen Publishers. ISBN 08196014380-8196-0143-8.
* Welcomme, R. L. [[1986]]. The Niger River System. In ''The Ecology of River Systems,'' ed. Bryan Robert Davies et Keith F. Walker, 9–60. Springer. ISBN 906193540790-6193-540-7.
 
== Nexus externus ==
{{communiaCat|Niger River|Nigrum}}
* [http://www.nigercurrents.ca "Exploring life and technology along the Niger River,"] www.nigercurrents.ca
* Maas, Pierre, et Geert Mommersteed. [[1990]]. [http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/199004/fishing.in.the.pondo.htm ''Fishing in the Pondo,''] www.saudiaramcoworld.com. Saudi Aramco World
* [http://www.ppl.nl/bibliographies/all/?bibliography=water "Níger," ex ''Aqua et ius inter civitates: bibliographia selecta,''] www.ppl.nl (Bibliothèque du Palais de la Paix)
* [http://earthtrends.wri.org/maps_spatial/maps_detail_static.cfm?map_select=298&theme=2 Nuntii et tabula pelvis hydrographicae fluminis,] earthtrends.wri.org
* [http://www.waterandnature.org/eatlas/html/af14.html Tabula pelvis Nigri Fluminis,] www.waterandnature.org (Water Resources eAtlas)
 
=== Ius inter civitates et Niger Flumen ===
* [http://www.ppl.nl/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=82 "Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law,"] apud www.ppl.nl (Peace Palace Library)
* Spadi, Fabio. [[2005]]. "The ICJ Judgment in the Benin-Niger Border Dispute: the interplay of titles and ‘effectivités’ under the uti possidetis juris principle." [http://www.ljil.leidenuniv.nl/index.php3?m=5&c=186 ''Leiden Journal of International Law''] 4:777–794.
 
=== Photographemata ===
* [http://web.archive.org/20081014020125/web.mac.com/dwb217/iWeb/WorldViewBender/Niger%20River.html Photographemata Nigri Fluminis in Malio,] web.mac.com
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[[Categoria:Flumina Africae]]
 
{{Myrias|Geographia}}
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