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[[Fasciculus:Pacific Culture Areas.jpg|thumb|Tabula Polynesiae.]]<!-- NB: This map isn't the best; from Polynesia, it omits Fiji and the Polynesian outliers farther west: the map in Douglas Oliver's ''The Pacific Islands'' is better, as are others.-->
'''Polynesia''' ([[Lingua Graeca|Graece]]: ''πολύς'' 'multi' + ''νῆσος'' 'insula') est regio [[Oceania|Oceanica]], quae plusquam mille insularum in [[Oceanus Pacificus Centralis|Oceano Pacifico Centrali]] et [[Oceanus Pacificus Australis|Australi]] amplectitur.
[[Fasciculus:TahuhuNgatiAwa.jpg|thumb|[[Sculptura]] ex dorsali [[domus]] [[Maori]]anae assere, circa 1840.]]
[[Fasciculus:Polynesia-triangle.png|thumb|Polynesia generatim definitur [[insula]]e intra [[triangulum Polynesium]].]]
[[Fasciculus:Priests traveling across kealakekua bay for first contact rituals.jpg|thumb|[[Flamen|Flamina]] Polynesia (Havaiani) [[scapha]]m multorum alveorum, circa 1781 [[navigatio|navigant]].]]
[[Fasciculus:Paul Gauguin 056.jpg|thumb|''Feminae Tahitianae apud Litus,'' a [[Paulus Gauguin|Paulo Gauguin]] picta. Lutetiae: [[Musée d'Orsay]].]]
[[Fasciculus:Moorea baie cook.JPG|thumb|[[Cook Sinus]] [[Moorea]]e in [[Polynesia Francica]].]]
 
'''Polynesia''' ([[Lingua Graeca|Graece]]: ''πολύς'' 'multi' + ''νῆσος'' 'insula') est vasta [[regio]] [[Oceania|Oceanica]], quae plusquam [[mille]] [[insula]]rum in [[Oceanus Pacificus|Oceano Pacifico]] [[Oceanus Pacificus Medius|Medio]] et [[Oceanus Pacificus Australis|Australi]] amplectitur.
[[Fasciculus:Pacific Culture Areas.jpg|thumb|Tabula Polynesiam monstrans]]<!-- NB: This map isn't the best available; from Polynesia, it omits Fiji and the Polynesian outliers farther west: the map in Douglas Oliver's ''The Pacific Islands'' is better, as are others.-->
 
== Definitio ==
Polynesia universe consistit in insulis intus in [[Triangulum Polynesium|Triangulo Polynesio]]. Terminus ''Polynesia'' abs [[Carolus de Brosses|Carolo de Brosses]] anno [[1756]] primum adhibitus est. <!--, and originally applied to all the [[Pacific islands|islands of the Pacific]]. [[Iulius Dumont d'Urville]] in acroasi anni [[1831]] to the Geographical Society of Paris proposed a restriction on its use.
 
==Culturae Polynesiae==
[[Imago:TahuhuNgatiAwa.jpg|thumb|right|160px|[[Carving]] from the ridgepole of a [[Māori]] house, ca 1840]]
Polynesia in duas distinctas classes culturales divitur: [[Polynesia Orientalis|Polynesiam Orientalem]] et [[Polynesia Occidentalis|Polynesiam Occidentalem]].
 
==Circuli insularum==
Geographically, and oversimply, Polynesia may be described as a triangle with its corners at [[Hawaiian Islands|Hawaii]], [[Aotearoa]] ([[New Zealand]]) and [[Rapa Nui]] ([[Easter Island]]). The other main island groups located within the Polynesian triangle are [[Samoa]], [[Tonga]], the various island chains that form the [[Cook Islands]] and [[French Polynesia]]. [[Niue]] is a rare solitary island state near the centre of Polynesia.
Hic sunt insulae et greges insularum, aut [[civitas sui iuris|civitates sui iuris]] aut [[territorium|territoria]] subnationalis, qui vernacularem [[cultura]]m Polynesiam exhibent.<!--Some islands of Polynesian origin are outside the general triangle that geographically defines the region.-->
 
===Polynesia Occidentalis===
Polynesian island groups outside of this great triangle include [[Tuvalu]] and the French territory of [[Wallis and Futuna]]. [[Rotuma]] in the northern [[Fiji]]an islands and some of the [[Lau Islands|Lau]] group to Fiji's southeast have strong Polynesian character too. There are also small outlier Polynesian enclaves in Papua New Guinea, the Solomons and in Vanuatu. However, in essence, it is an [[anthropology|anthropological]] term referring to one of the three parts of [[Oceania]] (the others being [[Micronesia]] and [[Melanesia]]) whose pre-colonial population generally belongs to one ethno-cultural family as a result of centuries of maritime migrations.-->
*[[Niue]], civitas libera cum [[Nova Zelandia]] libere associata
*[[Samoa]], civitas libera
*[[Samoa Americana]], territorium [[CFA]]
*[[Tokelau]], dependentia [[Nova Zelandia|Novae Zelandiae]]
*[[Tonga]], regnum liberum
*[[Tuvalu]], civitas libera
*[[Uvea et Futuna]], territorium [[Francia]]e
 
===Disiunctae Polynesiae Occidentalis culturae===
==Historia==<!--
*[[Anuta]], insula in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
The Polynesian people are by ancestry a subset of the sea-migrating [[Austronesian people]] and the tracing of Polynesian languages places their [[prehistory|prehistoric]] origins in the [[Malay archipelago]]. The spread of pottery and domesticates in Polynesia is connected with the [[Lapita]]-culture that, around 1600–1200 [[Anno Domini|BC]], started expanding from [[New Guinea]] as far east as [[Fiji]], [[Samoa]] and [[Tonga]]. During this time the aspects of the Polynesian culture developed. Around 300 BC this new Polynesian people spread from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga to the [[Cook Islands]], [[Tahiti]], the [[Tuamotus]] and the [[Marquesas Islands]]. This was supported by [[Patrick Kirch]] and [[Marshall Weisler]] when they performed [[X-ray]] fluorescence sourcing of [[basalt]] artifacts found on both islands.<ref>{{cite web | title=History of Polynesian Archaeology | url=http://sscl.berkeley.edu/~oal/background/polyhist.htm | accessdate=November 18 | accessyear=2005 }}</ref>
*[[Bellona (insula)|Bellona]], insula in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
 
*[[Emae]], in [[Vanuatu]]
Between 300 and 1200 [[Common Era|CE]], the Polynesians discovered and settled [[Rapa Nui]] (Easter Island). This is supported by archaeological evidence as well as the introduction of flora and fauna consistent with the Polynesian culture and characteristic of the tropics to this subtropical island. Around [[Anno Domini|AD]] 400 [[Hawai'i]] was settled by the Polynesians and around AD [[1000]] [[Aotearoa]] (New Zealand) was settled as well. The migration of the Polynesians is impressive considering that the islands settled by them are spread out over great distances—the Pacific Ocean covers nearly a half of the Earth's surface area. Most contemporary cultures, by comparison, never voyaged beyond sight of land.-->
*[[Kapingamarangi]], insula in [[Foederatae Micronesiae Civitates|Foederatis Micronesiae Civitatibus]]
 
*[[Luangiua]], atollum in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
== Culturae Polynesiae ==
*Mele-Fila: [[Mele (Vanuatu)|Mele]], vicus, et [[Fila]], insula, in [[Vanuatu]]
[[Fasciculus:Paul Gauguin 056.jpg|thumb|left|''Feminae Tahitianae apud Litus,'' a [[Paulus Gauguin|Paulo Gauguin]] picta. Lutetiae: [[Musée d'Orsay]]]]
*[[Nuguria]], atollum in [[Papua Nova Guinea]]
Polynesia in duas distinctas classes culturales divitur: [[Polynesia Orientalis|Polynesiam Orientalem]] et [[Polynesia Occidentalis|Polynesiam Occidentalem]].<!-- The culture of West Polynesia is conditioned to high populations. It has strong institutions of marriage and well-developed judicial, monetary and trading traditions. It comprises the groups of [[Tonga]], [[Niue]], [[Samoa]] and the northwestern [[Polynesian outlier]]s.
*[[Nukumanu]], atollum in [[Papua Nova Guinea]]
 
*[[Nukuoro]], insula in [[Foederatae Micronesiae Civitates|Foederatis Micronesiae Civitatibus]]
Eastern Polynesian cultures are highly adapted to smaller islands and atolls, principally the [[Cook Islands]], [[Tahiti]], the [[Tuamotus]], the [[Marquesas]], [[Hawaii]], [[Easter Island]] and smaller central-pacific groups.
*[[Pileni]], insula in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
 
*[[Rennell]], insula in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
The large islands of [[New Zealand]] were first settled by Eastern Polynesians who adapted their culture to a non-tropical environment.
*[[Rotuma]], insula in [[Viti]]is
 
*[[Sikaiana]], atollum in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
Religion, [[farming]], [[fishing]], weather prediction, out-rigger canoe (similar to modern [[catamaran]]s) construction and [[navigation]] were highly developed skills because the population of an entire island depended on them. Trading of both luxuries and mundane items was important to all groups. Many low-lying islands could suffer severe famine if their gardens were poisoned by the salt from the storm-surge of a hurricane. In these cases fishing, the primary source of protein, would not ease loss of [[food energy]]. Navigators, in particular, were highly respected and each island maintained a house of navigation with a canoe-building area.
*[[Taku]], atollum in [[Papua Nova Guinea]]
 
*[[Tikopia]], insula in [[Papua Nova Guinea]]
Settlements by the Polynesians were of two categories. The [[hamlet (place)|hamlet]] and the [[village]]. Size of the island inhabited determined whether or a not a hamlet would be built. The larger [[volcanic]] islands usually had hamlets because of the many zones that could be divided across the island. Food and resources were more plentiful and so these settlements of four to five houses (usually with gardens) were established so that there would be no overlap between the zones. Villages, on the other hand, were built on the coasts of smaller islands and consisted of thirty or more houses—in the case of atolls, on only one of the group so that food cultivation was on the others. Usually these villages were fortified with walls and palisades made of stone and wood.<ref>Encyclopedia Britannica, 1995.</ref>
 
However, New Zealand demonstrates the opposite; large volcanic islands with fortified villages.
 
As well as being great navigators these people were artists and artisans of great skill. Simple objects, such as fish-hooks would be manufactured to exacting standards for different catches and decorated even when the decoration was not part of the function. In some island groups weaving was a strong part of the culture and gifting woven articles an ingrained practice. Stone and wooden weapons were considered to be more powerful the better they were made and decorated. Dwellings were imbued with character by the skill of their building. Body decoration and jewelery is of international standard to this day.
 
The religious attributes of Polynesians were common over the whole Pacific region. While there are some differences in their spoken languages they largely have the same explanation for the creation of the earth and sky, for the gods that rule aspects of life and for the religious practices of everyday life. People travelled thousands of miles to celebrations that they all owned communally.
 
Due to relatively large numbers of competitive sects of Christian missionaries in the islands, many Polynesian groups have been converted to [[Christianity]]. [[Polynesian languages]] are all members of the family of [[Oceanic languages]], a sub-branch of the [[Austronesian languages|Austronesian]] language family.-->
 
==Oeconomia Polynesia==<!--
With the exception of New Zealand, the majority of independent Polynesian islands derive much of their income from foreign aid and remittances from those who live in other countries. Some encourage their young people to go where they can earn good money to remit to their stay-at-home relatives. Many Polynesian locations, such as Easter Island, supplement this with tourism income.<ref>{{cite web | title=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easter_Island | url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easter_Island | accessdate=November 18 | accessyear=2005 }}</ref> Some have more unusual sources of income, such as Tuvalu which marketed its '[[.tv]]' internet top-level domain name<ref>{{cite web | title=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Tuvalu | url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Tuvalu | accessdate=November 18 | accessyear=2005 }}</ref> or the Cooks that relied on [[Postage stamp|stamp]] sales. A very few others still live as they did before Western Civilization encountered them.-->
 
== Navigatio Polynesia ==
[[Fasciculus:Priests traveling across kealakekua bay for first contact rituals.jpg|thumb|Polynesian (Hawaiian) navigators sailing multi-hulled canoe, ca 1781]] <!--
At a time when [[Europe]]an [[sailors]] were [[navigation|navigating]] by keeping a watch for the shoreline in daylight, Polynesians were navigating a vast extent of the [[Pacific Ocean]]. Polynesia comprised islands diffused throughout a triangular area with sides of four thousand miles. The area from the Hawaiian Islands in the north, to Easter Island in the east and to New Zealand in the south was all settled by Polynesians. From a single chicken bone recovered from the archaeological site of El Arenal-1, on the Arauco Peninsula, Chile, recent research of a radiocarbon date and an ancient DNA sequence indicates that Polynesian navigators also reached the Americas at least 100 years before Europeans, introducing chickens to South America.<ref>[http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/05/science/05chic.html?_r=1&adxnnl=1&oref=slogin&adxnnlx=1181091707-e+ZDVqnF+pbc2icNHD+SfQ First Chickens in Americas Were Brought From Polynesia], by John Noble Wilford, New York Times, June 5, 2007.</ref><ref>[http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/104/25/10335 Radiocarbon and DNA evidence for a pre-Columbian introduction of Polynesian chickens to Chile], by Alice A. Storey, ''et al.'', PNAS, June 19th, 2007.</ref>
 
Knowledge of the traditional Polynesian methods of navigation was largely lost after contact with and colonization by Europeans. This left the problem of accounting for the presence of the Polynesians in such isolated and scattered parts of the Pacific. By the late 19th century to the early 20th century a more generous view of Polynesian navigation had come into favour, perhaps creating a very romantic picture of their canoes, seamanship and navigational expertise. In the mid-twentieth century, [[Thor Heyerdahl]] proposed another theory of Polynesian origins (one which did not win general acceptance), arguing that the Polynesians had migrated from South America on [[balsa]]-log boats.
 
Between about 3000 and 1000 BC speakers of Austronesian languages spread through island South-East Asia – almost certainly starting out from Taiwan, as tribes whose [[Taiwanese aborigines|natives]] had thought to have previously arrived about from mainland South China about 8000 years ago– into the edges of western [[Micronesia]] and on into [[Melanesia]]. In the archaeological record there are well-defined traces of this expansion which allow the path it took to be followed and dated with a degree of certainty. In the mid 2nd millennium BC, the [[Lapita]] culture appeared suddenly in north-west Melanesia, in the [[Bismarck Archipelago]]. Within a mere three or four centuries between about 1300 and 900 BC, the Lapita culture spread 6000 km further to the east from the Bismarck Archipelago, until it reached as far as [[Fiji]], [[Tonga]] and [[Samoa]]. In this region, the distinctive Polynesian culture developed.
 
In the mid to late 1960s, scholars began testing sailing and paddling experiments related to Polynesian navigation: [[David Henry Lewis|David Lewis]] sailed his catamaran from Tahiti to New Zealand using [[stellar navigation]] without instruments and [[Ben Finney]] built a 40-foot replica of a Hawaiian double canoe "Nalehia" and tested it in Hawaii. Meanwhile, Micronesian ethnographic research in the Caroline Islands revealed that traditional stellar navigational methods were still in everyday use. Recent re-creations of Polynesian voyaging have used methods based largely on Micronesian methods and the teachings of a Micronesian navigator, [[Mau Piailug]].
 
It is probable that the Polynesian navigators employed a whole range of techniques including use of the stars, the movement of ocean currents and wave patterns, the air and sea interference patterns caused by islands and [[atoll]]s, the flight of birds, the winds and the weather. Scientists think that long-distance Polynesian voyaging followed the seasonal paths of [[bird migration|birds]]. There are some references in their oral traditions to the flight of birds and some say that there were range marks onshore pointing to distant islands in line with these [[flyway]]s. One theory is that they would have taken a [[frigatebird]] with them. These birds refuse to land on the water as their feathers will become waterlogged making it impossible to fly. When the voyagers thought they were close to land they may have released the bird, which would either fly towards land or else return to the canoe. It is likely that the Polynesians also used wave and swell formations to navigate. It is thought that the Polynesian navigators may have measured the time it took to sail between islands in "canoe-days’’ or a similar type of expression.
 
Also, people of the Marshall Islands used special devices called [[Marshall Islands stick chart|stick charts]], showing the places and directions of swells and wave-breaks, with tiny seashells affixed to them to mark the positions of islands along the way. Materials for these maps were readily available on beaches, and their making was simple, however, their effective use needed years and years of study.{{fact|date=September 2007}}-->
 
==Origines geneticae==<!--
Recent DNA analysis suggests that Polynesians, including Tongans, Samoans, Niueans, Cook Islanders, Tahitians, Hawaiians, Marquesans, and [[Māori]], exhibit a maternal [[mitochondrial DNA]] link to indigenous peoples of the New Guinea Highlands 40,000 years ago (Bryan Sykes - Seven Daughters of Eve, page 133). The paternal Y chromosome also comes from "New Guinea 11,500 years ago - but since that time have evolved quite separately from Melanesians" (see "Melanesian Origin of Polynesian Y Chromosomes" and "Melanesian Origin of Polynesian Y Chromosomes (correction)" cited in References). After this period, proto-Polynesian genes exhibit a 9based pair mtDNA deletion common to East Asians, showing a separation from Taiwanese aborigines 6,000 years ago. (See "Melanesian origins of Polynesian Y chromosome") Polynesian population expansion began in isolation in the Pacific 2,000 years ago (see also Melanesian origin of Y chromosomes). One particular DNA haplotype - the human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) Bw48 is commonly found in Polynesian populations, but occurs only sporadically in Melanesia. The only other known population with an appreciable frequency of HLA-Bw48 is that of the North American Indians or more specifically the Tlingit of Alaska. (Susan Serjeantson - Out of Asia - Peopling the Americas and the Pacific Edited by Robert Kirk and Emoke Szathmary 1985). In Polynesia Bw48 co-occurs with A11, - suggesting a variation since Polynesians departed from the people of the Alaskan/Canadian coast. This DNA evidence is supported by cultural and archaeological evidence showing a definite link between Eastern Polynesia and the Tlingit, Kwakuitl and Haida of the islands off Alaska and Canada. This suggests that although there has been some cultural input, including the arrival of plants and animals into Western Polynesia through Melanesia, the main genetic input into Polynesia has been from the north. This means proto-Polynesians voyaged from East Asia to Alaska 6,000 years ago and then entered the Polynesian triangle via Hawai'i 2,000 years ago.
 
Irving Goldman, author of "Ancient Polynesian Society", has this to say on the comparison between Kwakuitl and the Polynesians. "For reasons that remain to be discovered, the Indian tribes of this area [NW Coast] share formal principles of rank, lineage, and kinship with Pacific islanders. The Kwakiutl, seem very close to what I have designated as the "traditional" Polynesian society. They share with Polynesians a status system of graded hereditary ranking of individuals and of lineages; a social class system of chiefs ("nobles"), commoners, and slaves; concepts of primogeniture and seniority of descent lines; a concept of abstract supernatural powers as special attributes of chiefs; and a lineage system that leans toward patriliny, but acknowledges the maternal lines as well. Finally, Kwakiutl and eastern Polynesians, especially, associate ambiguity of lineage membership with "Hawaiian" type kinship, a fully classificatory system that does not distinguish between maternal and paternal sides, or between siblings and cousins."
 
[[Imago:Polynesia-triangle.png|thumb|Polynesia is generally defined as the islands within the [[Polynesian triangle]]]]
 
"The following DNA evidence will help clarify the division between Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians.(S. W. Serjeantson “The Colonization of the Pacific – A Genetic Trail 1989 pp 135,162-163,166-7) "The following genes set them apart: Polynesians lack HLA-B27 , whereas it is common amongst Melanesians. Polynesians have had little contact with Micronesians. There are only a limited number of similarities in the HLA system. It is clear that Micronesia has had an independent source of HLA genes, probably from the Philippines, as indicated by the high frequency of HLA-Bw35 which is absent from Melanesian and Polynesian groups. HLA-B13, B18 and B27 are found throughout Melanesia. These antigens are sporadic in Western Polynesia and are essentially absent from the populations of Eastern Polynesia. The few sporadic occurrences are attributable to recent foreign admixture. These antigens are also rarely found in Micronesia. HLA-A11 and B40 are significantly associated with each other in Melanesia, but are not linked in Polynesian Populations. HLA data cannot support the theory of Polynesian evolution within Melanesia. Gene frequency distributions, as well as linkage relationships, clearly place Maoris of New Zealand in the Eastern Polynesian branch, together with Hawaiians and Easter Islanders. The HLA-A-B linkage relationships seen in Hawaiians are present also in Maoris and are consistent with a split in these populations 1,000 years ago." For more information on this, see ( http://users.on.net/~mkfenn/page5.htm and http://users.on.net/~mkfenn/page6.htm ).-->
 
== Circuli insularum ==
[[Fasciculus:Moorea baie cook.JPG|thumb|left|[[Cook Sinus]] [[Moorea]]e in [[Polynesia Francica]]]]<!--The following are the islands and island groups, either nations or subnational territories, that are of native Polynesian culture. Some islands of Polynesian origin are outside the general triangle that geographically defines the region.-->
 
=== Polynesia Occidentalis ===
* [[Niue]], civitas libera cum [[Nova Zelandia]] libere associata
* [[Samoa]], civitas libera
* [[Samoa Americana]], territorium [[CFA]]
* [[Tokelau]], dependentia [[Nova Zelandia|Novae Zelandiae]]
* [[Tonga]], regnum liberum
* [[Tuvalu]], civitas libera
* [[Uvea et Futuna]], territorium [[Francia]]e
 
=== Disiunctae Polynesiae Occidentalis culturae ===
* [[Anuta]], insula in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
* [[Bellona (insula)|Bellona]], insula in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
* [[Emae]], in [[Vanuatu]]
* [[Kapingamarangi]], insula in [[Foederatae Micronesiae Civitates|Foederatis Micronesiae Civitatibus]]
* [[Luangiua]], atollum in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
* Mele-Fila: [[Mele (Vanuatu)|Mele]], vicus, et [[Fila]], insula, in [[Vanuatu]]
* [[Nuguria]], atollum in [[Papua Nova Guinea]]
* [[Nukumanu]], atollum in [[Papua Nova Guinea]]
* [[Nukuoro]], insula in [[Foederatae Micronesiae Civitates|Foederatis Micronesiae Civitatibus]]
* [[Pileni]], insula in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
* [[Rennell]], insula in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
* [[Rotuma]], insula in [[Viti]]is
* [[Sikaiana]], atollum in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
* [[Taku]], atollum in [[Papua Nova Guinea]]
* [[Tikopia]], insula in [[Papua Nova Guinea]]
 
=== Polynesia Orientalis ===
* [[Havaii|Havaiʻi]], civitas [[Civitates Foederatae Americae|Foederatarum Americae Civitatum]]
* [[Insulae Cook]], civitas libera cum [[Nova Zelandia]] libere associata
* [[Pitcairn Insulae]], territorium [[Britanniarum Regnum|Britannicum]]
* [[Polynesia Francica]], territorium [[Francia|Francicum]]
* [[Rapanui]], pars [[Chilia|Tziliae]]
 
== Vide etiam ==
*[[Dioecesis Polynesiae]]
* [[Index Polynesiorum notabilium]]
*[[Index Polynesiorum notabilium]]
* [[Linguae Polynesiae]]
* [[MythologiaLinguae PolynesiaPolynesiae]]
* [[SocietasMythologia Polynesia]]
* [[Societas pro Navigatione Polynesia]]<!--
*[[Societas pro Navigatione Polynesia]]<!--
 
==Notae==
<div class="references-small"><references/></div>-->
 
== Fontes ==
*Finney, Ben R. [[1963]], [[1976]]. New, Non-Armchair Research. In Ben R. Finney (1963), ''Pacific Navigation and Voyaging.,'' ed. Ben R. Finney. The Polynesian Society.
*Finney, Ben R., ed. [[1976]]. ''Pacific Navigation and Voyaging.'' The Polynesian Society.
*Lewis, David. [[1976]]. A Return Voyage Between Puluwat and Saipan Using Micronesian Navigational Techniques. In Ben R. Finney (1963), ''Pacific Navigation and Voyaging.'' The Polynesian Society.
*Sharp, Andrew. [[1963]]. ''Ancient Voyagers in Polynesia.'' Longman Paul.
* Kayser, M., S. Brauer, G. Weiss, P. A. Underhill, L. Roewer, W. Schiefenhšfel, et M. Stoneking. [[2000]]. "Melanesian Origin of Polynesian Y Chromosomes." ''Current Biology'' 10:1237–1246
* Kayser, M., S. Brauer, G. Weiss, P. A. Underhill, L. Roewer, L., W. Schiefenhšfel, et M. Stoneking. [[2000]]. "Melanesian Origin of Polynesian Y Chromosomes (correction)." ''Current Biology'' 11:1–2.
 
== Nexus externi ==
{{Wiktionary}}
*[http://www.southpacific.org/ SouthOrdinator PacificPacifici OrganizerAustrakis,] www.southpacific.org
*[http://www.jeanhervedaude.com/Ile%20de%20Paques%20histoire%20par%20les%20timbres.htm HistoryHistoria ofInsulae EasterRapanui Islandin illustratednotis bypostalicis stampsillustrata,] www.jeanhervedaude.com
*[http://www.mapsouthpacific.com/ MapTabula SouthPacifici PacificAustralis,] www.mapsouthpacific.com<!--
*[http://www.maori.info/ Useful introduction to Maori society, including canoe voyages]
*[http://polynesia.com/ Polynesia (Polynesian Cultural Center)]
*[http://www.abc.net.au/gnt/history/Transcripts/s1066068.htm Interview with David Lewis]
*[http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/11/15/1037080913844.html Obituary: David Henry Lewis—including how he came to rediscover Pacific Ocean navigation methods]
*[http://www.tropic-island.net/gallery/album.php?id_album=12 Photogallery - French Polynesia (Tahiti, Moorea, Motu Tiahura)]-->
{{geo-stipula}}
 
[[Categoria:Polynesia]]
{{Link GA|de}}
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