Quantum redactiones paginae "Piodasses" differant

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'''Piodasses''' (Graece Πιοδάσσης,<ref>Carlo Gallavotti, "[http://www.jstor.org/stable/29754137 The Greek Version of the Kandahar Bilingual Inscription of Aśoka]", ''East and West'' 10, no. 3, p. 185.</ref> Sanscritice '''Aśoka,''' [[Devanāgarī]] अशोकः {{IAST|Aśokaḥ}}, Latine fortasse ''Aśokus'' vel ''Asocus'') (c. [[304 a.C.n.|304]]–[[232 a.C.n.]]), fuit Imperator [[Imperium Mauryanum|Mauryanus]], qui paene totum [[Subcontinens Indicus|subcontinentem Indicum]] ab anno fere [[273 a.C.n.]] ad [[232 a.C.n.|232]] [[rex]]it. Piodasses fuit [[filius]] [[Bindusara]]e, nepos igitur [[Candragupta Maurya|Candraguptae]], qui hoc [[imperium]] nactus est anno [[322 a.C.n.]], [[domus|domumque]] imperii Mauryani condidit. [[India]]e maiorem partem Piodasses a [[pater|patre]] recepit, ipseque [[regnum]] magnopere extendit; postremo [[Kalinga (India)|Kalingam]] in [[oriens|orientalibus]] Indiae partibus expugnavit.<!--Verba Latinizanda|Haec expeditio cruentes disque cadaveribus fuit, aerumna et miseria, quae cum exstiterunt, Piodassem in gravitati mentis labefecit.--> Piodasses victoriam [[res militaris|militarem]] esse inutilem agnovit, et sola victoriam [[dharma|dhammae]] discrimen facit. Is confessionem [[Buddhismus|Buddhisticam]] expressit et se apud [[bellum|bella]] nova omisit.
 
Saepe appellatus [[unus]] ex Indiae [[Tellus|mundique]] gravissimorum imperatorum, AśokusPiodasses post multas victorias militares paene totam terram quae hodiernam constitit Indiam rexit. Eius imperium a terra nunc appellata [[Irania]], [[Pakistania]], et [[Afganistania]] in [[occidens|occidenti]] ad [[Bangladesha]] et Indam [[Assamia]]m civitatem in orienti, et ad meridiem usque [[brahmagiri]] in [[Karnataka]] patuit. Regnum dictum Kalingam vicit, quod nemo suae domus, ne [[Candragupta Maurya]] quidem, vicerat. Suum [[caput (urbs)|caput]] fuit [[Magadha]], fortasse in civitate nunc appellata [[Bihar]].<ref>Sed Ranajit Pal (2002) indicat primam Magadhae mentionem esse in [[Edicta AsokiPiodassis|Edictis AsokPiodassis]], inter [[septentrio]]nes et occasum solis spectanti, et prima Magadha fuisse in in [[Baluchistania]], in [[regio]]ne ad occidentem vergenti. Tota reliquiarum Mauryarum Nandarumque absentia in regione Patna monstrat hoc probabiliter non fuisse Piodassis [[caput (urbs)|caput]].</ref>
 
Visis necibus accumulatis belli [[Kalinga (India)|Kalingae]], quod ipse ex appetitu victoriae gesserat, is [[Buddhismus|Buddhismum]] doctrinae [[Veda|Vedicae]] amplectus, se dedicavit ad Buddhismum trans [[Asia]]m propagandum et monumenta construxit ad gravissimos [[Gautama Buddha|Gautamae Buddhae]] situs designandos. Piodasses porro se consecravit ad studium [[ahimsa]]e ([[non violentiae]]), [[amor]]is, [[veritas|veritatis]], [[tolerantia]]e, et [[vegetarianismus|vegetarianismi]]. [[Historia|Historici]] eum arbitrantur administratorem [[philanthropia|philanthropicum]], et is ergo in [[historia Indiae]] appellatur "imperator omnium saeculorum" et "imperator imperatorum" (''samrath [[chakravartin]]'').
:Fuerunt in historia mundi milia regum imperatorumque qui se appellaverunt "eorum altitudines," "eorum maiestates," "eorum elatissimae maiestates," et cetera. Breve temporis punctum fulserunt, et tam breviter e conspectu evanuerunt; sed Aśokus fulget, fulgetque splendide, splendida sicut stella, usque adeo ad hodiernum diem.
 
Cum eius [[Edicta AsokiPiodassis|edictis]], eius fabula enarratur in ''[[Asokavadana|Aśokāvadāna]]'' ('Narratione Aśoki') et ''[[Divyavadana|Divyāvadāna]]'' ('Narratione divina') [[saeculum 2|saeculi secundi]] exeuntis, et in libro [[lingua Sinhala|Sinhalo]] ''[[Mahavamsa]]'' ('Annalibus Magnis'). Post fere duo millennia, eius potestas in [[Asia Meridionalis|Asia Meridionali]] et praecipue [[subcontinens Indicus|subcontinenti Indico]] iam videtur: insigne ex eius imperio effosso hodie est proprium [[insigne Indiae|Indiae insigne]], et in [[historia Buddhismi]], is gradum tenet tantum sub gradu ipsius [[Gautama Buddha|Gautamae Buddhae]].
 
==Vita==
 
[[Ksatriya|Kśatriya]] natus, Piodasses regiam educationem militarem doctrinamque [[Veda|Vedicam]] accepit, sed adulescens fuit improbus importunusque, venator impavidus. Multi historici dicunt eum non fuisse delicatum, sed corpore robustum. Tradunt eum potuisse [[leo]]nem vel [[tigris|tigridem]] solum virga lignea interficere, [[elephas|elephantem]] capulo cultri, armatos quoque milites vincere manibus nudis. Sollers fuit [[gladius|gladio]]; sic armatus, quemquam potuit superare. Dux militum formidolosus durusque, missus est ad motum apud urbem [[Avanti (India)|Avanti]] exstinguendum. Nonnulli historici subiciunt eum suos fratres necavisse ut se imperium adsequatur.
 
===Ascensus ad imperium===<!--
Developing into an impeccable warrior general and a shrewd statesman, [[Ashoka]] went on to command several regiments of the Mauryan army. His growing popularity across the empire made his elder brothers wary of his chances of being favored by [[Bindusara]] to become the next emperor. The eldest of them, [[Susima]], the traditional heir to the throne, persuaded Bindusara to send Ashoka to quell an uprising in the city of Taxila in the north-west province of Sindh, of which Prince Susima was the governor. Taxila was a highly volatile place because of the war-like Indo-Greek population and mismanagement by Susima himself. This had led to the formation of different militias causing unrest. Ashoka complied and left for the troubled area. As news of Ashoka's visit with his army trickled in, he was welcomed by the revolting militias and the uprising ended without a fight. (The province revolted once more during the rule of Ashoka, but this time the uprising was crushed with an iron fist.)
 
Ashoka's success made his stepbrothers more wary of his intentions of becoming the emperor and more incitements from Susima led Bindusara to send Ashoka into exile. He went into [[Kalinga]] and stayed there incognito. There he met a fisher woman named [[Kaurwaki]], with whom he fell in love. Recently found inscriptions indicate that she would later become either his second or third queen.
 
Meanwhile, there was again a violent uprising in [[Ujjain]]. Emperor Bindusara summoned Ashoka out of exile after two years. Ashoka went into Ujjain and in the ensuing battle was injured, but his generals quelled the uprising. Ashoka was treated in hiding so that loyalists of the Susima group could not harm him. He was treated by [[Buddhist]] monks and nuns. This is where he first learned the teachings of the [[Buddha]], and it is also where he met Devi, who was his personal nurse and the daughter of a merchant from adjacent Vidisha. After recovering, he married her. It was quite unacceptable to Bindusara that one of his sons should marry a Buddhist, so he did not allow Ashoka to stay in [[Pataliputra]] but instead sent him back to Ujjain and made him the governor of Ujjain. -->
 
[[Fasciculus:India 1947 Ashoka Lions 1 and half annas.jpg|thumb|Prima [[nota postalica]] ab [[India]] edita, anno [[1947]], ubi videtur capitulum columnae a Piodasse erectae, quattuor leonibus ornatae. Eadem imago est in pluribus nummis Indicis.]]
 
===Victoria Kalingensis===
 
===Sententia Buddhistica===
 
===Mors et legatum===
[[Fasciculus:AsokaKandahar.jpg|thumb|Inscriptio in linguis [[lingua Graeca|Graeca]] et [[lingua Aramaica|Aramaica]] ab AsokoPiodasse rege scripta apud [[Kandahar]] (Shar-i-kuna). [[Kabul]] Museum.]]
AsokusPiodasses fere quadraginta annos rexit. AsokaPiodasse mortuo, domus Mauryanus solum quinquaginta annos superfuit. Ashoka multos [[uxor]]es et liberos habuit.<!--but many of their names are lost to time. [[Mahinda|Mahindra]] and [[Sanghamitra]] were twins born by his first wife, Devi, in the city of [[Ujjain]]. He had entrusted to them the job of making his state religion, Buddhism, more popular across the known and the unknown world. [[Mahinda|Mahindra]] and [[Sanghamitra]] went into [[Sri Lanka]] and converted the King, the Queen and their people to Buddhism. They were naturally not handling state affairs after him. -->
 
==== Regnum Buddhisticum ====
== Fontes historici ==
==Chronologia vitae AsokiPiodassis (annis a.C.n.)==
* 304, natus
* 286, coniugium cum Maharani devi
(Some historians say Ashoka embranced buddhism in 266 BCE but became a true follower of buddhism after Conquest of Kalinga, 262 BCE or 263 BCE).-->
 
===Columnae AsokaePiodassis (Ashokstambha)===
==Legatum==
[[Fasciculus:QtubIronPillar.JPG|thumb|200px|Columna ferrea [[Dellium|Dellii]] [[India]]e.]]<!--
=== Expansio Buddhismi ===
===Administratio===
===Ashoka Chakra===<!--
The [[Ashoka Chakra]] (the wheel of Ashok the Great) is a depiction of the Dharmachakra or Dhammachakka in [[Pali]], the Wheel of Dharma ([[Sanskrit]]: Chakra means wheel). The wheel has 24 spokes. The Ashoka Chakra has been widely inscribed on many relics of the [[Mauryan]] Emperor, most prominent among which is the Lion Capital of [[Sarnath]] and The [[Ashoka Pillar]]. The most visible use of the Ashoka Chakra today is at the centre of the National flag of the Republic of India (adopted on 22 July 1947), where it is rendered in a Navy-blue color on a White background, by replacing the symbol of Charkha (Spinning wheel) of the pre-independence versions of the flag. Ashoka Chakra can also been seen on the base of Lion Capital of Ashoka which has been adopted as the National Emblem of India.
 
=== Constructiones aedificataea abPiodasse Asokaaedificatae ===
The twenty four [[spokes]] in this chakra [[wheel]] represent twenty four virtues:
# [[Love]]
# [[Courage]]
# [[Patience]]
# [[Peacefulness]]
# [[Kindness]]
# [[Goodness]]
# [[Faithfulness]]
# [[Gentleness]]
# [[Self-control]]
# [[Selflessness]]
# [[Self sacrifice]]
# [[Truthfulness]]
# [[Righteousness]]
# [[Justice]]
# [[Mercy]]
# Graciousness
# [[Humility]]
# [[Empathy]]
# [[Sympathy]]
# Supreme knowledge
# Supreme wisdom
# Supreme moral
# Love for all beings
# [[Hope]], trust, or faith in the goodness of [[God]] or [[nature]]. -->
 
===Columnae Asokae (Ashokstambha)===
[[Fasciculus:QtubIronPillar.JPG|thumb|200px|Columna ferrea [[Dellium|Dellii]] [[India]]e.]]<!--
 
The pillars of Ashoka are a series of columns dispersed throughout the northern Indian subcontinent, and erected by Ashoka during his reign in the 3rd century BCE. Originally, there must have been many pillars of Ashoka although only ten with inscriptions still survive. Averaging between forty and fifty feet in height, and weighing up to fifty tons each, all the pillars were quarried at Chunar, just south of Varanasi and dragged, sometimes hundreds of miles, to where they were erected. The first Pillar of Ashoka was found in the 16 century by Thomas Coryat in the ruins of ancient Delhi. The wheel represents the sun time and Buddhist law, while the [[swastika]] stands for the cosmic dance around a fixed center and guards against evil. -->
 
=== Capitalis Leonum Asokae (Ashokmudra) ===
 
=== Constructiones aedificatae ab Asoka ===
* [[Sanchi]], [[Madhya Pradesh]], [[India]]
* [[Dhamek Stupa]], [[Sarnath]], [[Uttar Pradesh]], [[India]]
== Sententiae ==
=== Piodassis ipsius ===
[[Fasciculus:6thPillarOfAshoka.JPG|thumb|Edicta AsokiPiodassis: sexta columna, anno 238 a.C.n., Sanscritice scripta in [[scriptura Brahmi|litteris Brahmi]], nunc in [[Museum Britannicum|Museo Britannico]].]]
 
* Omnes sunt filii mei. Id quod volo filios meos habere est salus et felicitas, et hoc in mundo et in proximo; hic volo omnes habere. Nequis intelligere quam vehementer hoc volo, et, si quis inter vos intellegitis, totam vim voluntatis meae non intellegitis.
 
<!-- * All men are my children. What I desire for my own children, and I desire their welfare and happiness both in this world and the next, which I desire for all men. You do not understand to what extent I desire this, and if some of you do understand, you do not understand the full extent of my desire. -->
 
=== De Piodasse ===
 
== Asokus vel Piodsses hodie ==
=== In artificibus et pelliculis ===
 
===In litteris===<!--
* ''Asoka and the Decline of the Maurya'' by [[Romila Thapar]].
* ''Early India and Pakistan: to Ashoka'' (1970) by Brigadier Sir [[Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler]].
* ''Asoka the Great'' by Monisha Mukundan.
* ''Asokan Sites and Artefacts'', a Source-book with Bibliography. [[Harry Falk]], [[Verlag Philipp von Zabern]], Mainz 2006 ISBN 978-3-8053-3712-0.
* ''The Legend of King Asoka'' (1948) by John S. Strong.
* ''Ashoka the Great'' (1995) by D. C. Ahir.
* ''Ashoka text and glossary'' (1924) by Alfred C. Woolner .
* ''Asoka: The Buddhist Emperor of India'' by [[Vincent A. Smith]].
* ''Discovery of the Exact Site of Asoka's Classic Capital of Pataliputra'' (1892) by L. A. Waddell.
* ''Asoka Maurya'' (1966) by [[B. G. Gokhale]].
* ''The Legend of King Asoka'' (1989) by John S. Strong.
* ''Asoka'' (1923) by D.R. Bhandarkar.
* ''Ashoka, The Great'' by B. K. Chaturvedi.
* ''Asoka'' by Mookerji Radhakumud.
* ''King Aśoka and Buddhism Historical And Literaray Studies'' by Anuradha Seneviratna.
* ''To Uphold the World: The Message of Ashoka and Kautilya for the 21st Century'' (2008) by Bruce Rich.
* ''Asoka and His Inscriptions'' by Beni Madhab Barua.
* ''Asoka's Edicts'' (1956) by A. C. Sen. -->
 
=== In cultura populare ===
 
== Pinacotheca ==
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