Quantum redactiones paginae "Organismus" differant

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Summarium vacuum
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[[Fasciculus:EscherichiaColi NIAID.jpg|thumb|''[[Escherichia coli]]'', [[Bacterium]] quod [[intestinum]] inferius [[Animal]]ium [[sanguis|sanguine]] calido habitat.]]
[[Fasciculus:Ericoid mycorrhizal fungus.jpg|thumb|left|''[[Mycorrhiza ericoida]]'' [[Fungus]].]]
 
'''Organismus''' (ex [[lingua Graeca|Graeco]] ''ὀργανισμός'') in [[biologia]] appellatur quodlibet [[vita|vivum]] (sicut [[Animal]], [[Planta]], [[Fungus]], [[Bacterium]], [[microbium|microbiumque]] varii), vel latissime congeries [[molecula]]rum quae tota re stabili <!--as a more or less stable whole -->operatur et proprietates vitae habet. Alia verbi definitio est: quaelibet structura viva, sicut [[Planta]], [[Animal]], [[Fungus]], [[Bacterium]]ve quae potest crescere et se reproducere" (Chambers 1999). Nihilominus, multi fontes proponunt definitiones quae [[Virus biologicum|vira]] et opinabiles [[Biochemia alternativa|formas vitae non organicas]] (arte-factas vel arte-facturas) excludunt; pro reproductione, vira ex biochemica cellulae hospitis statu pendent.
 
[[Fasciculus:Ericoid mycorrhizal fungus.jpg|thumb|left|''[[Mycorrhiza ericoida]]'' [[Fungus]]]]
 
Omnes organismi possunt tota re stabili [[stimulus (physiologia)|stimulis]] [[Responsum ad stimulos|respondere]], [[reproductio|se reproducere]], [[auctus (biologia)|augeri]], et [[homoeostasis|homoeostasim]] sustentare. Organismi sunt [[unicellularis|unicellulares]] aut, velut in ''[[Homo sapiens|Hominibus sapientibus]]'', multis ex millionibus [[Cellula|cellularum]] in propriis [[Textum (biologia)|textis]] et [[organum (biologia)|organis]] constantes. Vox ''[[multicellularis]]'' 'multas cellulas habentem' quemlibet organismum in plus quam cellulam unam constantem describit.
 
==Superorganismus== -->
== Artis vocabula ==
[[Fasciculus:Blue crab on market in Piraeus - Callinectes sapidus Rathbun 20020819-317.jpg|thumb|250px|[[Cancer|Cancri]] sunt organismi.]]
Omnes organismi ab scientia [[taxinomia]]e in [[taxon|taxa]] digeruntur. Taxa sunt numerati organismorum greges qui a re generali ([[dominium (biologia)|dominio]]) ad rem specificam ([[species (taxinomia)|speciem]]) patent. Usitata graduum ratio est:
Exempli gratia, ''[[Homo sapiens]]'' est [[binomen]] quod [[Homo|homines]] hodiernos significat. Omnes speciei ''sapientis'' socii, secundum doctrinam scientiae, inter se procreare possunt. Nonnullae species ad genus quodque pertineant, sed socii variarum inter genus specierum non possunt procreare ut progeniem feracem gignant. Generi autem ''[[Homo (genus)|Homini]]'' est solum una species extans: ''Hominem sapientem.'' Priores species—''Homines [[Homo erectus|erectus]]'', ''[[Homo neanderthalensis|neanderthalensis]]'', et ceteri—facti sunt exstincti abhinc annorum multa milia. Nonnulla genera ad eandem familiam pertinent, et similiter a gradu ad gradum. Tandem regnum finitimum (in casu hominum, [[Animalia]]) in unum ex tribus dominiis ponitur, secundum quasdam geneticas structuralesque notas. Omnes ab scientia noti organismi viventes ab hoc systemate digeruntur ut species in familia quaque artius cognati et genetice{{dubsig}} similes inter se sint quam speciebus in aliis familiis.
 
== Vira ==
 
Vira, ad [[reproductio]]nem [[metabolismus|metabolismumque]] inhabilia, usitate non habentur ut organismi. Hoc autem iudicium est controversum, quia alii [[parasitus|parasiti]] [[endosymbion]]tesque etiam sunt inhabilia ad vitam liberam. Quamquam viris sunt nonnulla [[enzyma]]ta [[molecula]]eque in organismis vivis consuetae, extra [[cellula (biologia)|cellulam]] hospitis non possunt reproducere, et earum rationes metabolicae hospitem et eius "machinas geneticas" requirunt, sicut [[organella]] in hospitibus eukaryoticis et congeriem enzymatum utilum (quae vira ipsa facere non possent) in hospitibus prokaryoticis. Cum vira nullum [[metabolismus|metabolismum]] liberum sustinent, et ergo non usitate aestimantur organismos, habent suorum [[genus|generum]], et [[evolutio|evolvuntur]] eisdem modis quibus organismi veri evolvuntur.
 
== Evolutio ==
In [[biologia]], theoriadoctrina [[universus descensus communis|universi descensus communis]] proponit omnes [[tellus (planeta)|terrae]] organismos de commune auctore generis vel proavita [[genum|genorum]] congerie ([[Anglice]]: ''gene pool'') descendisse. Indicia descensus communis inveniuntur in notis quas omnes organismi viventes habent. Tempore [[Carolus Darwin|Caroli Darwin]], indicia notarum communium solum ex observatione similitudinum morphologicarum ante oculos deducta sunt, sicut inventum omnes aves habere alas, etiam aves quae volare non solent. <!--
 
Today, there is debate over whether or not all organisms descended from a common ancestor, or a "[[last universal ancestor]]," also called the "last universal common ancestor." The universality of [[genetic coding]] suggests common ancestry. For example, every living cell makes use of nucleic acids as its genetic material, and uses the same twenty amino acids as the building blocks for proteins, though exceptions to the basic twenty amino acids have been found; however, throughout history, groupings based on appearance or function of species have sometimes been [[polyphyletic]] because of [[convergent evolution]].-->
 
==Vide Bibliographia etiam==
*[[Voltinismus]]
* Cavalier-Smith, Thomas. [[1987]]. "The Origin of Eukaryote and Archaebacterial Cells." ''Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences'' 503:17–54.
 
* ''Chambers 21st Century Dictionary.'' [[1999]]. Sub voce "organism."
==Bibliographia==
* Flechtner, Hans-Joachim. [[1970]]. ''Grundbegriffe der Kybernetik—Eine Einführung.'' [[Stutgardia]]e: Wissenschaftliche Verlags-Gesellschaft.
* Cavalier-Smith, Thomas. [[1987]]. "The Origin of Eukaryote and Archaebacterial Cells." ''Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences'' 503:17–54.
* Doolittle, W. Ford. [[2000]]. "Uprooting the tree of life." ''Scientific American'' 282(6):90–95.
* ''Chambers 21st Century Dictionary.'' [[1999]]. Sub voce "organism."
* Hass, Hans. [[1994]]. ''Die Hyperzeller: Das neue Menschenbild der Evolution.'' Hamburg: Carlsen. ISBN 3-551-85017-8.
* Doolittle, W. Ford. [[2000]]. "Uprooting the tree of life." ''Scientific American'' 282(6):90–95.
* Hennen, Anna Maria. [[2000]]. ''Die Gestalt der Lebewesen: Versuch einer Erklärung im Sinne der [[Aristoteles|aristotelisch]]-[[Scholastik|scholastischen]] Philosophie.'' Würzburg: Königshausen und Neumann. ISBN 3-8260-1800-1.
* Flechtner, Hans-Joachim. [[1970]]. ''Grundbegriffe der Kybernetik—Eine Einführung.'' [[Stutgardia]]e: Wissenschaftliche Verlags-Gesellschaft.
* Osawa, Syoso Osawa. [[1995]]. ''Evolution of the Genetic Code.'' [[Oxonia]]e: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-854781-5.
* ThomsHass, Sven PHans. [[20051994]]. ''UrsprungDie Hyperzeller: Das neue Menschenbild desder LebensEvolution.'' FrankfurtHamburg: Fischer-Taschenbuch-VerlagCarlsen. ISBN 3-596-16128-23551850178.
* WitzanyHennen, GüntherAnna WitzanyMaria. [[19932000]]. ''NaturDie der Sprache—SpracheGestalt der NaturLebewesen: SprachpragmatischeVersuch Philosophieeiner Erklärung im Sinne der Biologie[[Aristoteles|aristotelisch]]-scholastischen Philosophie.'' Würzburg: Königshausen &und Neumann. ISBN 978-3-88479-827-03826018001.
* Osawa, Syoso Osawa. [[1995]]. ''Evolution of the Genetic Code.'' [[Oxonia]]e: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-854781-59780198547815.
* Zimmerman, Rudi. [[2001]]. ''Die Datentransformation: Das Individuum als selbstkopierender Datenträger und das Zeitalter des Systems Mensch.'' [[Berolinum|Berolini]]: Verlag Philosophie des Dritten Jahrtausends. ISBN 3-8311-1902-3.
*Thoms, Sven P. [[2005]]. ''Ursprung des Lebens.'' Frankfurt: Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag. ISBN 3596161282.
*Witzany, Günther Witzany. [[1993]]. ''Natur der Sprache—Sprache der Natur: Sprachpragmatische Philosophie der Biologie.'' Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann. ISBN 9783884798270.
* Zimmerman, Rudi. [[2001]]. ''Die Datentransformation: Das Individuum als selbstkopierender Datenträger und das Zeitalter des Systems Mensch.'' [[Berolinum|Berolini]]: Verlag Philosophie des Dritten Jahrtausends. ISBN 3-8311-1902-33831119023.
 
== Nexus externi ==
[[Fasciculus:Fungi in Borneo.jpg|thumb|[[Boletus]] [[polyporus]] cum hospite habet coniunctionem [[parasitus|parasiticam]].]]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/944790.stm BBCNews: 27 September, 2000, When slime is not so thick]<!-- "It means that some of the lowliest creatures in the plant and animal kingdoms, such as slime and amoeba, may not be as primitive as once thought"-->
** [http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=4742 SpaceRef.com, July 29, 1997: Scientists Discover Methane Ice Worms On Gulf Of Mexico Sea Floor]
** [http://www.science.psu.edu/iceworms/iceworms.html The Eberly College of Science: Methane Ice Worms discovered on Gulf of Mexico Sea Floor]
** [http://www.sb-roscoff.fr/Ecophy/PDF/00-Fisher-NatWis.pdf Artikel, 2000: Methane Ice Worms: Hesiocaeca methanicola. Colonizing Fossil Fuel Reserves]
** [http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewnews.html?id=339 SpaceRef.com, May 04, 2001: Redefining "Life as We Know it"] De ''Hesiocaeca methanicola,'' sub [[glacies|glacie]] [[methana]] in alveo maris [[Sinus Mexici]] anno [[1997]] inventa.
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2585235.stm BBCNews, 18 December, 2002, 'Space bugs' grown in lab] "''Bacillus simplex'' andet ''Staphylococcus pasteuri'' . . . ''Engyodontium album''<!-- The strains cultured by Dr Wainwright seemed to be resistant to the effects of UV - one quality required for survival in space"-->
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3003946.stm BBCNews, 19 June, 2003, Ancient organism challenges cell evolution] "It appears that this organelle has been conserved in evolution from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, since it is present in both"
* [http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbios/bi04syllabsu03.html Interactive Syllabus for General Biology - BI 04, Saint Anselm College, Summer 2003]
* [http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/j/s/jsf165/Bio110.html Jacob Feldman: Stramenopila]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Root NCBI Taxonomy entry: root]
* [http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbios/surveybi04.html Saint Anselm College: Survey of representatives of the major Kingdoms]<!-- "Number of kingdoms has not been resolved. . . . Bacteria present a problem with their diversity. . . . [[Protista]] present a problem with their diversity."-->
* [http://www.species2000.org/ Species 2000 Indexing the world's known species].
* [http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/enviro/EnviroRepublish_828525.htm Maximus organismus]<!--The largest organism in the world may be a fungus carpeting nearly 10 square kilometers of an Oregon forest, and may be as old as 10500 years.]-->
* [http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html Arbor Vitae].
* [http://www.scribd.com/doc/1016/Life-from-birth-to-death/ Quaestiones a pueris rogatae de vita et earum responsi]
 
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