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'''Géza Vermes''', stylo [[Hungarice|Hungarico]] ''Vermes Géza'' ([{{IPA-hu|ˈɡeːzɒ ˈvɛrmɛʃ|lang}}], (natus est in [[Makó]] [[Hungaria]]e die [[22 Iunii]] [[1924]]; mortuus est die [[8 Maii]] [[2013]]). E familia Iudaica ortus ad religionem Catholicam cum parentibus annum agens septimum adhaesivit. In Hungaria eruditus est usque ad annum 1942. Inde, alumnuspatre et matre in [[Holocaustum|Holocausto]] necatis, [[Belgica]]m, deinde [[Anglia]]m petivit. Gradum doctoris meruit [[Universitas Catholica Lovaniensis|Universitatis Catholicae Lovaniensis]]: ille primus dissertationem de [[Manuscripta Maris Mortui|manuscriptis Maris Mortui]], eo tempore nuper repertis et aegre accessibilibus, conscripsit. Apud [[Universitas Novocastellensis|Novocastellenses]] docuit et mox [[Universitas Oxoniensis|Oxonienses]], ubi fuit [[Jewish]] [[Hungarian people|Hungarian]] origin--one who also served as a Catholic [[priest]] in his youth--and writer on religious history, particularly [[Judaism|Jewish]] and [[Christian]]. He was a noted authority on the [[Dead Sea Scrolls]] and ancient works in [[Aramaic]] such as the Targums, and on the life and religion of [[Jesus]]. He was one of the most important voices in contemporary Jesus research,<ref name = "TM1998 1">Theissen, Gerd and Annette Merz. The historical Jesus: a comprehensive guide. Fortress Press. 1998. translated from German (1996 edition). Chapter 1. Quest of the historical Jesus. p. 1-16</ref> and he has been described as the greatest Jesus scholar of his time.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://education.guardian.co.uk/academicexperts/story/0,,2266141,00.html|title=Geza Vermes: Questions arising|first=John|last=Crace|date=March 18, 2008|accessdate=2008-03-19|publisher=[[The Guardian]]}}; [http://www.tcpc.org/review/review.cfm?review_id=10 G. Richard Wheatcroft review of The Authentic Gospel of Jesus].</ref> Vermes' written work on Jesus focuses principally on Jesus the [[Jew]], as seen in the broader context of the narrative scope of Jewish [[history]] and [[theology]], while questioning the basis of some [[Christianity|Christian teachings]] on Jesus.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.americamagazine.org/content/article.cfm?article_id=10691|title=No Evidence? ''The Resurrection'' by Geza Vermes|first=Daniel J.|last=Harrington|date=March 24, 2008|accessdate=2008-12-19|publisher=[[America (magazine)|America]]}}</ref>
== Biography ==
Vermes was born in [[Makó]], [[Kingdom of Hungary|Hungary]], in 1924 to parents of Jewish descent, schoolteacher Terezia (Riesz) and liberal journalist Emo Vermes<ref>http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/17/world/europe/geza-vermes-dead-sea-scrolls-scholar-dies-at-88.html?_r=0</ref><ref>[http://books.google.ca/books?id=e7rYAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Mako,+Hungary,+June+22,+1924%22&dq=%22Mako,+Hungary,+June+22,+1924%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9eyKUb-eJMmsrgGW4oHQCQ&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAQ]</ref>, (His family, however, had not practiced Judaism since the early 19th century<ref>http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/17/world/europe/geza-vermes-dead-sea-scrolls-scholar-dies-at-88.html?_r=0</ref>.)
All three were baptised as [[Roman Catholic]]s when he was seven. His mother and journalist father died in the [[Holocaust]].
After researching the scrolls in Paris for a few years, he left the Catholic Church in 1957, and reasserting his Jewish identity, came to [[UK|Britain]] and took up a teaching post at the [[Newcastle University|University of Newcastle upon Tyne]]. He married [[Pamela Hobson Curle]], a scholar and poet who was already married<ref>http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/17/world/europe/geza-vermes-dead-sea-scrolls-scholar-dies-at-88.html?_r=0</ref>.<ref>[http://www.stanford.edu/group/auden/cgi-bin/auden/branches.php?ged=auden-bicknell.ged&surn=HOBSON W.H. Auden links in (Noreen) Pamela Hobson's Family Tree]
Nicholas Jenkins "Family ghosts" geneology database, Department of English, Stanford University</ref> in 1958. In 1965 he joined the Faculty of Oriental Studies at [[Oxford University]], rising to become the first professor of [[Jewish Studies]] before his retirement in 1991. In 1970 he became a member of the [[Liberal Judaism|Liberal Jewish Synagogue of London]],<ref>Géza Vermès, ''[http://books.google.com.au/books?id=rH69p6a9bcEC&pg=PA170 Providential Accidents: An autobiography]'', Rowman & Littlefield, 1998, ISBN 0-8476-9340-6, p. 170.</ref> "but insisted he had not converted, just “grew out of” Christianity".<ref>http://www.economist.com/news/obituary/21578017-geza-vermes-jew-ex-priest-and-translator-dead-sea-scrolls-died-may-8th-aged Geza Vermes: Geza Vermes, a Jew, ex-priest and translator of the Dead Sea Scrolls, died on May 8th aged 88</ref> After the death of his first wife in 1993, he married Margaret Unarska in 1996 and adopted her son, Ian Vermes.
Vermes died on 8 May 2013 after a recurrence of cancer.<ref>http://paleojudaica.blogspot.ca/2013_05_05_archive.html</ref>
== Academic career ==
Vermes was one of the first scholars to examine the Dead Sea Scrolls after their discovery in 1947, and is the author of the standard translation into [[English language|English]] of the Dead Sea Scrolls: ''The Dead Sea Scrolls in English'' (1962)<ref>, re-issued in London by Penguin Classics, as ''The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English'', 2004, ISBN 0-14-044952-3.</ref> He is one of the leading scholars in the field of the study of the historical Jesus (see Selected Publications, below) and together with Fergus Millar and Martin Goodman, Vermes was responsible for substantially revising [[Emil Schurer]]'s three-volume work, ''The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ'',<ref>Edinburgh, T. & T. Clark, 1973, ISBN 0-567-02242-0, 1979, ISBN 0-567-02243-9, 1986-87. ISBN 0-567-02244-7, ISBN 0-567-09373-5.</ref> His ''An Introduction to the Complete Dead Sea Scrolls,'' revised edition (2000), is a study of the collection at Qumran.<ref name="britannica.com">"Jesus Christ." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 08 Nov. 2010 [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/303091/Jesus-Christ].</ref>
Until his death, he was a Professor Emeritus of Jewish Studies and Emeritus Fellow of [[Wolfson College, Oxford]], but continued to teach at the [[Oriental Institute, Oxford|Oriental Institute]] in [[Oxford]]. He had edited the ''[[Journal of Jewish Studies]]''<ref name = "JJS">[http://www.jjs-online.net JJS Online].</ref> from 1971 to his death, and from 1991 he had been director of the Oxford Forum for [[Qumran]] Research at the [[Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies]]<ref>[http://www.ochjs.ac.uk/ Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies].</ref> He inspired the creation of the British Association for Jewish Studies (BAJS) in 1975 and of the European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) in 1981 and acted as founding president for both.
== Opera selecta ==
* ''Scripture and Tradition in Judaism: Haggadic studies''. Lugduni Batavorum: Brill, 1961. ISBN 90-04-03626-1
* ''The Dead Sea Scrolls in English''. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1962
** ''The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English''. Londinii: Penguin, 1997. ISBN 978-0-14-044952-5; (2004opus ed.)anno (Fiftieth2011 anniversaryrursus ededitum. 2011 ISBN 978-0-141-19731-9)
* ''Jesus the Jew: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels''. Minneapoli: Fortress Press, 1973. ISBN 0-8006-1443-7
* ''Post-Biblical Jewish Studies''. Lugduni Batavorum: Brill, 1975. ISBN 90-04-04160-5
* (cum [[Martinus Goodman|Martino Goodman]]) ''The [[Essenes]] According to the Classical Sources''. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1989. ISBN 1-85075-139-0
* ''The Religion of Jesus the Jew''. Minneapoli: Fortress Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8006-2797-0
* ''The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English''. Londinii: Penguin, 1997. ISBN 978-0-14-044952-5 (2004 ed.) (Fiftieth anniversary ed. 2011 ISBN 978-0-141-19731-9)
* ''Providential Accidents''. Londinii: SCM Press, 1998. ISBN 0-334-02722-5; Lanham Terrae Mariae: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998. ISBN 0-8476-9340-6 [De vita sua]
* ''The Changing Faces of Jesus''. Londinii: Penguin, 2001. ISBN 0-14-026524-4