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'''Textura''' in [[musica]] est modus quo res<!--materials--> [[melodia|melodicae]], [[rhythmus|rhythmicae]], et [[harmonia|harmonicae]] in [[compositio musica|compositione]] coniunguntur, totum rei [[sonus|sonum]] constituens. Ea saepe describitur quod attinet ad densitatem (vel crassitudinem) et [[coniectus (musica)|coniectum]]<!--range-->, [[spatium]] inter summos infimosque [[tonus|tonos]]<!-- ,in relative terms as well as more specifically distinguished according to the number of voices, or parts, and the relationship between these voices--> <!--(vide [[#Genera texturarum|genera texturarum]] infra)--> (Benward & Saker 2003). Exempli gratia, textura crassa nonnulla continere potest strata [[instrumentum musicum|instrumentorum]], alio strato fortasse [[pars chordarum|chordarum]]<!--string section-->, alio [[pars orichalcorum|orichalcorum]] parte, textura satis levis, nimis stratis carens. Crassitudo, a [[numerus|numero]] et ubertate<!--richness--> instrumentorum quae re canunt adfecta, inter naturas leves et crassas variatur. Moveri praeterea potest rei textura a numero ingenioque [[vox (musica)|vocum]] quae una canunt, [[color (musica)|colore]]<!--timbre--> instrumentorum vel [[vox|voces]] quae his partibus canunt, et [[harmonia|harmoniis]], [[tempus (musica)|temporibus]], ac [[rhythmus|rhythmis]] qui adhibentur.
Digeri possunt genera texturae numero et coniunctionibus partium, per nomina primariorum texturae elementorum descripta: melodia primaria (MP), melodia secundaria (MS), parallela melodia sustinens (PMS), sustentaculum staticum<!--static support--> (SS), sustentaculum harmonicum (SH), sustentaculum rhythmicum (SR), ac sustentaculum harmonicum et rhythmicum (SHR) (Benward & Saker 2003: 1362009).<!--
==Genera usitata==
| [[Monophonia|Monophonica]]
| Monophonic texture includes a single melodic line with no accompaniment. (Benward & Saker 2003, 1362009). PSMs often double or parallel the PM they support (Benward & Saker 2003, p.&nbsp;1372009).
| [[Image:Pop Goes the Weasel melody.PNG|thumb|250px|"[[Pop Goes the Weasel]]" melody (Kliewer 1975,: p.270-301).]]
| {{Listen|filename=Pop Goes the Weasel.ogg|title=Pop Goes the Weasel|image=none|description=Tune for ''Pop Goes the Weasel''}}
| Biphonic
| Two distinct lines, the lower sustaining a drone (constant pitch) while the other line creates a more elaborate melody above it. [[Pedal point|Pedal tone]]s or [[ostinati]] would be an example of a SS (Benward & Saker 2003, p.&nbsp;137).
| [[Image:Pedal tone Bach - BWV 851, m.1-2.png|thumb|250px|Pedal tone in Bach's Prelude no. 6 in D Minor, BWV 851, from ''The Well Tempered Clavier'', Book I, m.1-2. All pedal tone notes are consonant except for the last three of the first measure. (Benward & Saker 2003, p2009).99)]]
| {{Listen|filename=Pedal tone Bach - BWV 851, m.1-2.mid|title=Pedal tone Bach|image=none|description=Pedal tone in Bach's Prelude no. 6 in D Minor, BWV 851, from ''The Well Tempered Clavier'', Book I, m.1-2.}}
|[[Polyphonia|Polyphonica]] or [[Counterpoint]]
| Multiple melodic voices which are to a considerable extent independent from or in imitation with one another. Characteristic texture of the [[Renaissance music]], also prevalent during the [[Baroque music|Baroque period]] (Benward & Saker 2003,1999,199,158,137, 136,129,110,90,59,35,11,9,02009). Polyphonic textures may contain several PMs (Benward & Saker 2003, p.&nbsp;1372009).
|[[File:BachFugueBar.png|thumb|right|250px|A bar from [[J.S. Bach]]'s "[[Fugue]] No.17 in A flat", BWV 862, from ''[[Well-tempered Clavier|Das Wohltemperirte Clavier]]'' (Part I), a famous example of '''[[counterpoint|contrapuntal polyphony]]'''. {{audio|BachFugueBar.mid|Play}}]]
|{{Listen|filename=Johann Sebastian Bach - The Well-tempered Clavier - Book 1 - 11Efuge Bbmaj.ogg|image=none|title= Book 1 - Fugue No. 21 in B-flat major (BWV 866)|description=performed on a Flemish harpsichord by Martha Goldstein|format=[[Ogg]]}}
|The most common texture in Western music: melody and accompaniment. Multiple voices of which one, the melody, stands out prominently and the others form a background of harmonic accompaniment. If all the parts have much the same rhythm, the homophonic texture can also be described as homorhythmic. Characteristic texture of the [[Classical music|Classical period]] and continued to predominate in [[Romantic music]] while in the 20th century, "popular music is nearly all homophonic," and, "much of jazz is also" though, "the simultaneous improvisations of some jazz musicians creates a true polyphony" (Benward & Saker 2003, 136). Homophonic textures usually contain only one PM (Benward & Saker 2009). HS and RS are often combined, thus labeled HRS (Benward & Saker 2003, p.&nbsp;1372009).
|[[Fascoculus:If ye love me.png|thumb|right|250px|Homophony in [[Thomas Tallis|Tallis']] "If ye love me," composed in 1549. The voices move together using the same rhythm, and the relationship between them creates chords: the excerpt begins and ends with an F [[Major chord|major triad]].]]
|{{Listen|filename=If ye love me.ogg|title=Tallis' "If ye love me"|description= Beginning of Tallis' "If ye love me," notated above.|image=none|format=[[Ogg]]}}
==Additional types==
Although in music instruction certain styles or repertoires of music are often identified with one of these descriptions, this is basically added music (for example, Gregorian chant is described as monophonic, Bach Chorales are described as homophonic, and fugues as polyphonic). Many composers use more than one type of texture in the same piece of music.-->
Simultaneitas fit cum plures totae texturae musicae simul fiant, contra nonnullas texturas ex ordine factas.
A simultaneity is more than one complete musical texture occurring at the same time, rather than in succession. -->
Recentius texturae genus, primum a [[Georgius Ligeti|Georgio Ligeti]] adhibitum, est [[micropolyphonia]]. Inter alias magni momenti texturas musicas sunt texturae polythematicae, polyrhythmicae, onomatopoeicae, compositae, et mixtae (Corozine 2002: 34).
==Vide etiam==
*[[Bassus Albertianus]]<!--
*[[Bassus figuratus]]<!--
*[[Carter Family picking]]
*[[Chorda aurorae borealis]]
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[[Categoria:TexturaTerminologia musica]]
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