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(Paginam instituit, scribens 'The '''''Weilüe''''' ({{zh|c=魏略|p=Wèilüè|w=''Wei-lüeh''}}) written by Yu Huan between CE 239, the end of the reign of Emperor Ming of ...')
 
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'''''Weilüe''''' sive [[Sinice]] '''魏略''' est opus historicum necnon geographicum ab [[Yu Huan]] [[Sinice]] inter annos 239 et 265 scriptum de origine et statu regni [[Cao Wei]], quod annis 220-265 floruit. Maxima huius operis pars deperdita est, sed excursus geographicus de regionibus occidentalibus, de itineribus, de [[Imperium Romanum|Imperio Romano]], nobis servatur in notis subiunctis capituli trigesimi libri ''[[Sanguozhi]]'' a [[Pei Songzhi]] saeculo V confecti.
The '''''Weilüe''''' ({{zh|c=魏略|p=Wèilüè|w=''Wei-lüeh''}}) written by [[Yu Huan]] between [[Common Era|CE]] 239, the end of the reign of [[Emperor Ming of Han|Emperor Ming]] of the [[Han Dynasty]], and 265 CE, the end of [[Cao Wei]] (220-265 CE). Although not an official historian, Yu Huan has always been held in high regard amongst Chinese scholars.
 
== Bibliographia ==
{{wikisourcelang|zh|三國志/卷30}}
*[[Chavannes, Édouard]]. 1905.Chavannes, “Les"Les pays d’Occidentd'Occident d’aprèsd'après le Wei lio.”" in ''T'T’oungoung pao 6'' vol. 6 (1905), pp.  519–571.
The original text of the ''Weilüe'', or “Brief Account of Wei”, by Yu Huan has been lost. Fortunately, his chapter on the [[Xirong people]] was quoted as an extensive footnote to Chapter 30 of the ''[[Sanguozhi]]'' by [[Pei Songzhi]], which was first published in CE 429. Other than this chapter, only a few isolated quotes remain in other texts.
* Friedrich Hirth, ''China and the Roman Orient''. Sciamhaevi, 1875
* Yu, Taishan. 2004., ''A History of the Relationships between the Western and Eastern Han, Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Western Regions''. (''Sino-Platonic Papers'', No131). 131College March, 2004.Park: Dept. of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania, 2004 [http://www.sino-platonic.org/abstracts/spp131_china_dynasties_west.html De hoc libro]
 
== Nexus externi ==
Yu Huan does not mention his sources in the text that has survived. Some of this new data presumably came to China via traders from the [[Roman Empire]] ([[Da Qin]]). Land communications with the West apparently continued relatively uninterrupted to the northern state of [[Cao Wei|Wei]] after the fall of the [[Han Dynasty]].
* {{:s:zh:三國志/卷30|Textus Sinicus (colore fulvo scriptus) apud Vicifontem Sinicum}}
* John E. Hill, interpr., ''[http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/weilue/weilue.html The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe]'' (versio Anglica, 2004)
 
[[Categoria:Litterae Sinicae]]
Yu Huan apparently never left China, but he collected a large amount of information on the countries to the west of China including [[Parthia]], India, and the Roman Empire, and the various routes to them. Some of this information had reached China well before Yu Huan’s time, and can also be found in the sections dealing with the ‘[[Western Regions]]’ of the ''[[Shiji]]'', the ''[[Hanshu]]'', and the ''[[Hou Hanshu]]''. In spite of this repetition of earlier (and sometimes fanciful) information, the ''Weilüe'' contains new, unique, and generally trustworthy material, mostly from the late second and early third centuries CE. It is this new information that makes the ''Weilüe'' a valuable historical source. Most of the new information appears to have come from the [[Han Dynasty|Eastern Han]], before China was largely cut off from the West by civil wars and unrest along its borders during the late 2nd century CE.
[[Categoria:Libri historici]]
 
[[Categoria:Libri geographici]]
The ''Weilüe'' describes the maritime routes to the Roman Empire and it is quite possible that some, or all, of the new information on the Roman Empire and Parthia came from foreign sailors. One such record which may have been available to Yu Huan is detailed in the [[Liangshu]] of a merchant from the Roman Empire who in CE 226 arrived in [[Jiaozhi]], near modern [[Hanoi]], and was sent to the court of [[Sun Quan]], the [[Eastern Wu|Wu]] emperor, who asked him for a report on his native country and its people.
[[Categoria:Scripta saeculo 3]]
 
[[Categoria:Sericae scripta]]
Yu Huan also includes a brief description of "Zesan" which probably refers to the East African coast which was known to Greek and Roman authors as [[Azania]], and what appears to be awareness of a route around Africa to the Roman Empire - "You can (also) travel (from Zesan) southwest to the capital of Da Qin (Rome), but the number of ''[[li (unit)|li]]'' is not known".<ref>Hill (2004), Section 16.</ref> The [[Early Pandyan Kingdom]] of [[Ancient Tamil country|Tamilakam]] is referred to under the name, ''"Panyue"''. <blockquote>The kingdom of Panyue (Pandya) is also called Hanyuewang. It is several thousand ''li'' to the southeast of Tianzhu (Northern India), and is in contact with Yi Circuit [in modern southern [[Yunnan]]]. The inhabitants are small; they are the same height as the Chinese. Traders from Shu (Western Sichuan) travel this far. The Southern Route, after attaining its most westernmost point, turns southeast until it reaches its end.<ref>Hill (2004), Section 8. [http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/weilue/weilue.html] Draft Translation of the ''Weilüe'' by John Hill</ref></blockquote>
 
The section on [[Daqin]] (Roman territory) from the ''Weilüe'' was translated into English by [[Friedrich Hirth]] in his pioneering 1885 volume, ''China and the Roman Orient''. Hirth included translations of a wide range of other Chinese texts relating to Daqin and the Chinese text of each is included, making it an essential reference even today. In 1905, [[Édouard Chavannes]] translated the remainder of the ''Weilüe'' into French under the title of "Les pays d’occident d’après le Wei lio". Chavannes’ translation is accompanied by copious notes in which he clarified numerous obscurities, and convincingly identified many of the countries and towns mentioned in the ''Weilüe'', especially along the eastern sections of the overland trade routes.
 
==Footnotes==
{{Reflist}}
 
==References==
*[[Chavannes, Édouard]]. 1905. “Les pays d’Occident d’après le Wei lio.” ''T’oung pao 6'' (1905), pp.&nbsp;519–571.
*Hill, John E. 2004. ''The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe'' 魏略 ''by Yu Huan'' 魚豢'': A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE.'' Draft annotated English translation. [http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/weilue/weilue.html]
* [[Hirth, Friedrich]]. 1875. ''China and the Roman Orient''. Shanghai and Hong Kong. Unchanged reprint. Chicago, Ares Publishers, 1975.
*Yu, Taishan. 2004. ''A History of the Relationships between the Western and Eastern Han, Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Western Regions''. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 131 March, 2004. Dept. of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania.
 
[[Category:Chinese history texts]]
[[Category:3rd-century history books]]
[[Category:Three Kingdoms]]
 
[[en:Weilüe]]