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m (movit Asoka ad Asokus: Latinizatio nominum sanscritorum)
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[[Fasciculus:Mauryan Empire Map.gif|thumb|400px|[[Imperium Mauryanum]] sub AśokaAśoko ab [[Irania]], [[Pakistania]], [[Afganistania]] in occidenti ad [[Bangladesha]] et Indam [[Assamia]]m civitatem in orienti, et ad meridiem usque [[Tamil Nadu]] in [[Karnataka]] ([[India Meridionalis|India Meridionali]] patuit. (Anglice)]]
 
'''AśokaAśokus''' vel Aśoka ([[Devanāgarī]]: अशोकः {{IAST|Aśokaḥ}}; c. [[304 a.C.n.|304]]–[[232 a.C.n.]]), fuit Imperator [[Imperium Mauryanum|Mauryanus]], qui paene omnem [[Subcontinens Indicus|subcontinentem Indicum]] ab anno fere [[273 a.C.n.]] ad [[232 a.C.n.|232]] rexit. AśokaAśokus fuit filius [[Bindusara]]e, nepos igitur [[Candragupta Maurya|Candraguptae]], qui hoc imperium nactus est anno 322 a.C.n., domumque imperialem Mauryanum condidit. Indiae maiorem partem AśokaAśokus a patre recepit ipseque regnum magnopere extendit; postremo [[Kalinga (India)|Kalingam]] in orientalibus partibus Indiae expugnavit.<!--Verba Latinizanda|Haec expeditio cruentes disque cadaveribus fuit, aerumna et miseria, quae cum exstiterunt, Aśokam in gravitati mentis labefecit.--> AśokaAśokus victoriam militarem esse inutilem agnovit, et sola victoriam [[dharma|dhammae]] discrimen facit. Is confessionem [[Buddhismus|Buddhisticam]] expressit et se apud bella nova omisit.
 
Saepe appellatus unus ex Indiae mundique gravissimorum imperatorum, AśokaAśokus post multas victorias militares paene totam terram quae hodiernam constitit Indiam rexit. Eius imperium a terra nunc appellata [[Irania]], [[Pakistania]], et [[Afganistania]] in occidenti ad [[Bangladesha]] et Indam [[Assamia]]m civitatem in orienti, et ad meridiem usque [[brahmagiri]] in [[Karnataka]] patuit. Regnum dictum [[Kalinga]]m vicit, quod nemo suae domus, ne [[Candragupta Maurya]] quidem, vicerat. Suum [[caput (curbs)|caput]] fuit [[Magadha]], fortasse in civitate nunc appellata [[Bihar]].<ref>Sed Ranajit Pal (2002) indicat primam Magadhae mentionem esse in [[Edicta Asokae|Edictis Asokae]], inter septentriones et occasum solis spectanti, et prima Magadha fuisse in in [[Baluchistania]], in regione ad occidentem vergenti. Tota reliquiarum Mauryarum Nandarumque absentia in regione Patna monstrat hoc probabiliter non fuisse AśokaeAśoki caput.</ref>
 
Visis necibus accumulatis belli [[Kalinga (India)|Kalingae]], quod ipse ex appetitu victoriae gesserat, is [[Buddhismus|Buddhismum]] doctrinae [[Veda|Vedicae]] amplectus, se dedicavit ad Buddhismum trans [[Asia]]m propagandum et monumenta construxit ad gravissimos [[Gautama Buddha|Gautamae Buddhae]] situs designandos. AśokaAśokus porro se consecravit ad studium [[ahimsa]]e ([[non violentiae]]), [[amor]]is, [[veritas|veritatis]], [[tolerantia]]e, et [[vegetarianismus|vegetarianismi]]. [[Historia|Historici]] eum arbitrantur administratorem [[philanthropia|philanthropicum]], et is ergo in [[historia Indiae]] appellatur "imperator omnium saeculorum" et "imperator imperatorum" (''samrath [[chakravartin]]'').
Saepe appellatus unus ex Indiae mundique gravissimorum imperatorum, Aśoka post multas victorias militares paene totam terram quae hodiernam constitit Indiam rexit. Eius imperium a terra nunc appellata [[Irania]], [[Pakistania]], et [[Afganistania]] in occidenti ad [[Bangladesha]] et Indam [[Assamia]]m civitatem in orienti, et ad meridiem usque [[brahmagiri]] in [[Karnataka]] patuit. Regnum dictum [[Kalinga]]m vicit, quod nemo suae domus, ne [[Candragupta Maurya]] quidem, vicerat. Suum [[caput (curbs)|caput]] fuit [[Magadha]], fortasse in civitate nunc appellata [[Bihar]].<ref>Sed Ranajit Pal (2002) indicat primam Magadhae mentionem esse in [[Edicta Asokae|Edictis Asokae]], inter septentriones et occasum solis spectanti, et prima Magadha fuisse in in [[Baluchistania]], in regione ad occidentem vergenti. Tota reliquiarum Mauryarum Nandarumque absentia in regione Patna monstrat hoc probabiliter non fuisse Aśokae caput.</ref>
 
Visis necibus accumulatis belli [[Kalinga (India)|Kalingae]], quod ipse ex appetitu victoriae gesserat, is [[Buddhismus|Buddhismum]] doctrinae [[Veda|Vedicae]] amplectus, se dedicavit ad Buddhismum trans [[Asia]]m propagandum et monumenta construxit ad gravissimos [[Gautama Buddha|Gautamae Buddhae]] situs designandos. Aśoka porro se consecravit ad studium [[ahimsa]]e ([[non violentiae]]), [[amor]]is, [[veritas|veritatis]], [[tolerantia]]e, et [[vegetarianismus|vegetarianismi]]. [[Historia|Historici]] eum arbitrantur administratorem [[philanthropia|philanthropicum]], et is ergo in [[historia Indiae]] appellatur "imperator omnium saeculorum" et "imperator imperatorum" (''samrath [[chakravartin]]'').
 
Verbum ''aśokae'' [[Sanscritice]] significat 'sine dolore', ex verbis ''a'' 'nullus, sine' et ''soka'' 'dolor, maeror, anxietas, cura'. In suis [[Edicta Asokae|edictis]], appellatur "Devānāmpriya" ([[Devanāgarī]]: देवानांप्रिय) ''Devānaṃpiya'' 'amatus deorum') et "Priyadarśin" ([[Devanāgarī]]: प्रियदर्शी ''Piyadassī'' 'qui unumquemque suaviter respicit'. Alius eius titulus est "Dhamma" ([[Prakrite]]: धम्मः 'legitimus, pius, probus').
 
[[H. G. Wells]], notissimus [[Regnum Britanniarum|Regni Britanniarum]] [[scriptor]] et [[criticus socialis]], in magno eius opere ''[[The Outline of History]]'' ([[1920]]), de AśokaAśoko scripsit:
:Fuerunt in historia mundi milia regum imperatorumque qui se appellaverunt "eorum altitudines," "eorum maiestates," "eorum elatissimae maiestates," et cetera. Breve temporis punctum fulserunt, et tam breviter e conspectu evanuerunt; sed AśokaAśokus fulget, fulgetque splendide, splendida sicut stella, usque adeo ad hodiernum diem.
 
Cum eius [[Edicta Asokae|edictis]], eius fabula enarratur in ''[[Asokavadana|Aśokāvadāna]]'' ('Narratione AśokaeAśoki') et ''[[Divyavadana|Divyāvadāna]]'' ('Narratione divina') [[saeculum 2|saeculi secundi]] exeuntis, et in libro [[lingua Sinhala|Sinhalo]] ''[[Mahavamsa]]'' ('Annalibus Magnis'). Post fere duo millennia, eius potestas in [[Asia Meridionalis|Asia Meridionali]] et praecipue [[subcontinens Indicus|subcontinenti Indico]] iam videtur: insigne ex eius imperio effosso hodie est proprium [[insigne Indiae|Indiae insigne]], et in [[historia Buddhismi]], is gradum tenet tantum sub gradu ipsius [[Gautama Buddha|Gautamae Buddhae]].
 
== Vita ==
AśokaAśokus fuit filius [[Bindusara]]e, imperatoris [[Imperium Mauryanum|Mauryani]], et Dharmae, reginae gradus inferioris.<ref>Quamquam filia [[Brahmin]], vel Shubhadrangi, ea inferior aestimata est quia sanguinis regii non fuit.</ref> AśokaeAśoko fuerunt nonnulli fratres maiores natu (omnes filii vitrici, ex aliis Bindusarae uxoribus) et solum unus frater minoris, Vitthashoka, puer amatissimus, ex eadem matre. Propter ingenii acumen et sollertias militares, AśokaAśokus habetur fuisse deliciae avi, [[Candragupta Maurya|Candraguptae Mauryae]]. Secundum fabulam, cum Candragupta, [[Iainismus|Iainista]] vivere volens, singulare imperio se abdicaret, suum gladium abiecit, quod invenit conservavitque AśokaAśokus.
 
[[Ksatriya|Kśatriya]] natus, AśokaAśokus regiam educationem militarem doctrinamque [[Veda|Vedicam]] accepit, sed adulescens fuit improbus importunusque, venator impavidus. Multi historici dicunt eum non fuisse delicatum, sed corpore robustum. Tradunt eum potuisse [[leo]]nem vel [[tigris|tigridem]] solum virga lignea interficere, [[elephas|elephantem]] capulo cultri, armatos quoque milites vincere manibus nudis. Sollers fuit [[gladius|gladio]]; sic armatus, quemquam potuit superare. Dux militum formidolosus durusque, missus est ad motum apud urbem [[Avanti (India)|Avanti]] exstinguendum. Nonnulli historici subiciunt eum suos fratres necavisse ut se imperium adsequatur.
 
===Ascensus ad imperium===<!--
Ashoka's success made his stepbrothers more wary of his intentions of becoming the emperor and more incitements from Susima led Bindusara to send Ashoka into exile. He went into [[Kalinga]] and stayed there incognito. There he met a fisher woman named [[Kaurwaki]], with whom he fell in love. Recently found inscriptions indicate that she would later become either his second or third queen.
 
Meanwhile, there was again a violent uprising in [[Ujjain]]. Emperor Bindusara summoned Ashoka out of exile after two years. Ashoka went into Ujjain and in the ensuing battle was injured, but his generals quelled the uprising. Ashoka was treated in hiding so that loyalists of the Susima group could not harm him. He was treated by [[Buddhist]] monks and nuns. This is where he first learned the teachings of the [[Buddha]], and it is also where he met Devi, who was his personal nurse and the daughter of a merchant from adjacent Vidisha. After recovering, he married her. It was quite unacceptable to Bindusara that one of his sons should marry a Buddhist, so he did not allow Ashoka to stay in [[Pataliputra]] but instead sent him back to Ujjain and made him the governor of Ujjain. -->
 
[[Fasciculus:1 rupee old obverse.jpg|thumb|right|In nummis Indicis videtur capitulum columnae ab Aśoko erectae, quattuor leonibus ornatae.]]
[[File:Newpaisa.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Most of the Indian currencies including coins contain the symbol of Lion capital of Ashoka]] -->
 
=== Victoria Kalingensis ===
 
=== Mors et legatum ===
[[Fasciculus:AsokaKandahar.jpg|thumb|Inscriptio in linguis [[lingua Graeca|Graeca]] et [[lingua Aramaica|Aramaica]] ab AsokaAsoko rege scripta apud [[Kandahar]] (Shar-i-kuna). [[Kabul]] Museum.]]
AsokaAsokus fere quadraginta annos rexit.<!-- After his death, the Mauryan dynasty lasted just fifty more years. Ashoka had many wives and children, but many of their names are lost to time. [[Mahinda|Mahindra]] and [[Sanghamitra]] were twins born by his first wife, Devi, in the city of [[Ujjain]]. He had entrusted to them the job of making his state religion, Buddhism, more popular across the known and the unknown world. [[Mahinda|Mahindra]] and [[Sanghamitra]] went into [[Sri Lanka]] and converted the King, the Queen and their people to Buddhism. They were naturally not handling state affairs after him. -->
 
==== Regnum Buddhisticum ====
== Fontes historici ==
==Chronologia vitae AsokaeAsoki (annis a.C.n.)==
* 304, natus
* 286, coniugium cum Maharani devi
 
== Sententiae ==
===AsokaeAsoki ipsius===<!--
[[File:6thPillarOfAshoka.JPG|thumb|350px|Fragment of the 6th Pillar Edicts of Ashoka (238 BCE), in [[Brāhmī script|Brahmi]], sandstones. [[British Museum]].]]
 
* All men are my children. What I desire for my own children, and I desire their welfare and happiness both in this world and the next, which I desire for all men. You do not understand to what extent I desire this, and if some of you do understand, you do not understand the full extent of my desire. -->
 
=== De AsokaAsoko ===
 
== AsokaAsokus hodie ==
=== In artificibus et pelliculis ===
 
</gallery>
 
== Fontes de vita et regno AsokaeAsoki ==
* ''[[Asokavadana|Aśokāvadāna]]''
* [[Edicta Asokae]]
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