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[[ImagoFasciculus:Sivakempfort.jpg|thumb|300px|Statua in [[Bengaluru]] Śivam meditantem monstrat.]]
'''Śiva''' ([[scriptura devanāgarī]]: शिव , verbum [[Sanscritice]] 'felix' sonans) est maior [[Hinduismus|Hinduismi]] [[deus]] et unus [[Trimurti]] aspectus. In [[Shaiva]]na Hinduismi memoria, Shiva videtur deus supremus; in memoria [[Smarta]]na, is est unus ex quinque [[panchadeva|primis Dei formis]].<ref>http://www.himalayanacademy.com/resources/books/dws/dws_mandala-02.html</ref><ref name="Flood 1996, p. 17">Flood (1996), p. 17.</ref>
[[ImagoFasciculus:India statue of nataraja.jpg|thumb|175px|left|[[Aes|Aerea]] [[Domus Chola]]e statua Shivam saltantem nomine [[Nataraja]]e monstrat. [[Metropolitan Museum of Art]], [[Novum Eboracum (urbs)|Novi Eboraci]].]]
Adsectatores Hinduismi qui venerantur Shivam appellantur Shaivites vel Shaivas ([[Sanscritice]]: ''Śaiva'') (Tattwananda 1984:45). Shaivismus, cum memoriis Vaiṣṇavae, quae vehementius dicunt [[Vishnu]] et Śāktam, et memoriis quae vehementius dicunt [[Devi|deam]] [[Devī]] sunt inter potentissimis Hinduismi sectis (Flood 1996:17).
Corpus Shivae habetur consistere in quinque [[mantra|mantris]], appellatis ''pañcabrahman.''<ref>Pro disputatione harum formarum et tabula quae consociationes harum mantrarum ostendit, vide Kramrisch 1981:182–189.</ref> Sicut forma Dei, quisque habet suum nomen proprium et suam iconographiam<ref>De iconographia distincta, vide Kramrisch 1981.</ref> distinctam: [[Aghora]], [[Ishana|Īsāna]], [[Sadyojata|Sadyojāta]], [[Tatpurusha|Tatpuruṣa]], [[Vamadeva|Vāmadeva]]. Hae notiones, quinque Shivae vultus expressae, consociantur in variis scholis cum quinque [[elementum (Buddhismus)|elementis]], quinque [[sensus|sensibus]], quinque perceptionis organis, et quinque actionis organis.<ref>De consociatio cum quinque vultibus et aliis greges quinque, vide Kramrisch 1981:182. De epithetis ''pañcamukha'' et ''pañcavaktra'' quae ambo 'quinque vultus' significant, sicut epitheta Śiva, vide Apte 1965:578.</ref> Distinctiones doctrinae, et fortasse errores transmissionis, varietates inter textus fecerunt in modis quibus hae formae quinque consociantur cum variis naturis.<ref>De variatione in attributionibus inter textus, vide Kramrisch 1981:187.</ref>
== Propriae dei res ==
[[ImagoFasciculus:Shiva and Parvati.jpg|thumb|Shiva et [[Parvati]].<!-- Shiva is depicted three-eyed, with a crescent moon on his head, the Ganga flowing through his matted hair, wearing ornaments of serpents and a skull necklace, and covered in ashes, and Trisula and [[Damaru]] are seen in the background.-->]]
* '''Oculus tertius.''' Shiva saepe cum [[oculus tertiur|oculo tertio]] pingitur, quo is Desiderium (Kāma) combussit (Flood 1996:151). <!-- There has been controversy regarding the original meaning of Shiva's name Tryambakam (Sanskrit: ''त्र्यम्बकम्''), which occurs in many scriptural sources.<ref>For a review of theories about the meaning of ''tryambaka'', see: Chakravarti, pp.37-39.</ref> In classical Sanskrit, the word ''ambaka'' denotes "an eye", and in the ''Mahabharata'', Shiva is depicted as three-eyed, so this name is sometimes translated as "having three eyes".<ref>For usage of the word ''ambaka'' in classical Sanskrit and connection to the Mahabharata depiction, see: Chakravarti, pp. 38-39.</ref> However, in Vedic Sanskrit, the word ''{{IAST|ambā}}'' or ''{{IAST|ambikā}}'' means "mother", and this early meaning of the word is the basis for the translation "having three mothers" that was used by [[Max Müller]] and [[Arthur Anthony Macdonell|Arthur Macdonell]].<ref>For translation of Tryambakam as "having three mothers" and as an epithet of Rudra, see: Kramrisch, p. 483.</ref><ref>For vedic Sanskrit meaning and "having three mothers" as the translation of Max Müller and Macdonell, see: Chakravarti, pp. 37-38.</ref> Since no story is known in which Shiva had three mothers, E. Washburn Hopkins suggested that the name refers not to three mothers, but to three mother-goddesses who are collectively called the {{IAST|Ambikās}}.<ref>For discussion of the problems in translation of this name, and the hypothesis regarding the {{IAST|Ambikās}} see: Hopkins (1968), p. 220.</ref> Other related translations have been "having three wives or sisters" or were based on the idea that the name actually refers to the oblations given to Rudra, which according to some traditions were shared with the goddess {{IAST|Ambikā}}.<ref>For the {{IAST|Ambikā}} variant, see: Chakravarti, pp. 17, 37.</ref> -->
* '''Fauces caeruleae.''' [[Epitheton]] "Nīlakaṇthae" ([[Sanscrite]]: नीलकण्ठ ''nīla'' caeruleus' + ''kaṇtha'' 'fauces')<ref>Sharma 1996:290. Vide etiam nomen #93 in Chidbhavananda 1997:31.</ref> spectat ad fabulam in qua Shiva [[Halahala|venenum ex oceano mundi]] bibit (Flood 1996:78; Kramrisch 1981:473); [[Harivamsa]] autem dicit colorem Shivae faucum memoriae mandare fabulam in qua [[Vishnu]] Shivam strangulans eum volare coegit (Bartolomaeus & Metzger 1869:151).
* '''Luna falcata.''' <!-- Shiva bears on his head the crescent moon.<ref>For the moon on the forehead see: Chakravarti, p. 109.</ref> The epithet {{IAST|Chandraśekhara}} (Sanskrit: {{lang|sa|चन्द्रशेखर}} "Having the moon as his crest" - ''[[chandra]]'' = "moon", ''{{IAST|śekhara}}'' = "crest, crown")<ref>For ''{{IAST|śekhara}}'' as crest or crown, see: Apte, p. 926.</ref><ref>For {{IAST|Chandraśekhara}} as an iconographic form, see: Sivaramamurti (1976), p. 56.</ref><ref>For translation "Having the moon as his crest" see: Kramrisch, p. 472. </ref> refers to this feature. The placement of the moon on his head as a standard iconographic feature dates to the period when Rudra rose to prominence and became the major deity Rudra-Shiva.<ref>For the moon iconography as marking the rise of Rudra-Shiva, see: Chakravarti, p. 58.</ref> The origin of this linkage may be due to the identification of the moon with [[Soma]], and there is a hymn in the Rig Veda where Soma and Rudra are jointly emplored, and in later literature, Soma and Rudra came to be identified with one another, as were Soma and the moon.<ref>For discussion of the linkages between Soma, Moon, and Rudra, and citation to RV 7.74, see: Chakravarti, pp. 57-58.</ref> -->
* '''Crines implicati.''' <!-- Shiva's distinctive hair style is noted in the epithets {{IAST|Jaṭin}}, "the one with matted hair"<ref>Chidbhavananda, p. 22.</ref>, and Kapardin, "endowed with matted hair"<ref>For translation of Kapardin as "Endowed with matted hair" see: {{Harvnb|Sharma|1996|p=279}}.</ref> or "wearing his hair wound in a braid in a shell-like (kaparda) fashion".<ref>Kramrisch, p. 475.</ref> A kaparda is a cowrie shell, or a braid of hair in the form of a shell, or, more generally, hair that is shaggy or curly.<ref>For Kapardin as a name of Shiva, and description of the kaparda hair style, see, Macdonell, p. 62.</ref> -->
* '''Ganga Sacra.''' [[Ganges|Ganga]] Flumen ex implicatis Shivae crinibus fluit. <!-- The epithet [[Gangadhara|{{IAST|Gaṅgādhara}}]] ("bearer of the [[Ganga in Hinduism|river {{IAST|Gaṅgā}}]]") refers to this feature.<ref>For alternate stories about this feature, and use of the name {{IAST|Gaṅgādhara}} see: Chakravarti, pp. 59 and 109.</ref><ref>For description of the {{IAST|Gaṅgādhara}} form, see: Sivaramamurti (1976), p. 8.</ref> The Ganga (Ganges), one of the major rivers of the country, is said to have made her abode in Shiva's hair.<ref>For Shiva supporting {{IAST|Gaṅgā}} upon his head, see: Kramrisch, p. 473.</ref> -->
* '''Pulveres.''' <!-- Shiva smears his body with ashes ([[bhasma]]).<ref name="Flood 1996, p. 151">Flood (1996), p. 151.</ref> Some forms of Shiva, such as Bhairava, are associated with a very old Indian tradition of cremation-ground asceticism that was practiced by some groups who were outside the fold of brahmanic orthodoxy.<ref>Flood (1996), pp. 92, 161.</ref> These practices associated with cremation grounds are also mentioned in the Pali canon of Theravada Buddhism.<ref>Flood (1996), p. 161.</ref> One epithet for Shiva is "inhabitant of the cremation ground" (Sanskrit: ''{{IAST|śmaśānavāsin}}'', also spelled ''Shmashanavasin''), referring to this connection.<ref>Chidbhavananda, p. 23.</ref> -->
* '''Pellis tigridis.''' Sedens saepe pingitur Shiva super pellem [[Tigris|tigridis]] (Flood 1996:151). <!--an honour reserved for the most accomplished of Hindu ascetics, the Brahmarishis. {{cite web |url=http://www.tamilstar.com/mythology/brahmarishis |title=Mythology ~ The birth of Brahmarishis |accessdate=2008-05-07 |format=HTML }} -->
* '''Serpens.''' Shiva serpente circa collum saepe pingitur (Flood 1996:151).
* '''Tridens.''' Shivae telum proprium est [[tridens]] ([[Sanscritice]]: ''[[Trishula]]'') (Flood 1996:151).
* '''Tympanum.''' <!-- A small drum shaped like an hourglass is known as a ''[[damaru]]'' (Sanskrit: ''ḍamaru'') (Michaels 2004:218). For definition and shape, see: Apte, p. 461.</ref> This is one of the attributes of Shiva in his famous dancing representation<ref>Jansen, p. 44.</ref> known as [[Nataraja]]. A specific hand gesture ([[mudra]]) called ''{{IAST|ḍamaru-hasta}}'' (Sanskrit for "{{IAST|ḍamaru}}-hand") is used to hold the drum (Jansen 1993:25). This drum is particularly used as an emblem by members of the Kāpālika sect (Apte 1965:1961). -->
* '''Nandī.''' [[Nandi (taurus)|Nandī]], etiam dictus Nandin, est [[taurus (mythologia)|taurus]] quem Shiva equitat (Sanskrit: ''[[Vahana|vāhana]]''). <!--<ref>For a review of issues related to the evolution of the bull (Nandin) as Shiva's mount, see: Chakravarti, pp. 99-105.</ref><ref>For spelling of alternate proper names Nandī et Nandin vide Stutley 1985:98.</ref> Shiva's association with cattle is reflected in his name {{IAST|Paśupati}}, or [[Pashupati]] (Sanskrit: ''पशुपति''), translated by Sharma as "lord of cattle"<ref>{{Harvnb|Sharma|1996|p=291}}</ref> and by Kramrisch as "lord of animals", who notes that it is particularly used as an epithet of Rudra.<ref>Kramrisch, p. 479.</ref> -->
* '''Gaṇa.''' [[Gana|Gaṇa]] sunt Shivae servi, qui in [[Kailash]] habitant. Ei saepe dicuntur ''Boothaganae'' 'hostes manium', secundum eorum naturam. <!-- Generally benign, except when their lord is transgressed against, they are often invoked to intercede with the lord on behalf of the devotee. [[Ganesha]] was chosen as their leader by Shiva, hence [[Ganesha]]'s title ''{{IAST|gaṇa-īśa}}'' or ''{{IAST|gaṇa-pati}}'', "lord of the {{IAST|gaṇas}}".<ref>[[Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend]] (ISBN 0-500-51088-1) by Anna L. Dallapiccola</ref> -->
* '''Kailāsa.''' [[Kailash]], mons [[Himalaia]]nus, est consueta Shivae habitatio (Flood 1996:151). In [[mythologia Hinduistica]], Kailāsa habetur similitudo ''[[linga]]e,'' quae medium mundum significat (Stutley 1985:62).
* '''Varanasi.''' [[Varanasi]] habetur urbs quam Shiva praecipue amat. <!-- and is one of the holiest places of pilgrimage in India. It is referred to, in religious contexts, as Kashi (Keay 2000:33). -->
== Avatarae ==
Shiva, sicut aliis deitates Hinduisticis, habetur monstrare nonnullas incarnationes, appellatas [[avatara]]e. [[Adi Shankara]], [[philosophia|philosophus]] nondualisticae [[Vedanta]]e [[saeculum 8|saeculi octavi]], nominatus est "Shankara" pro Domino Shiva, et ergo nunc habetur fuisse incarnatio dei.<ref>Padma Purana 6.236.7-11.</ref> In ''Hanuman Chalisa,'' [[Hanuman]] eundem esse putatur avataram Shivae undecimam.<ref>Sri Ramakrishna Math, ''Hanuman Chalisa'' (1985:5).</ref>
== Templa ==
[[ImageFasciculus:108shivalingas.jpg|thumb|400px|Centum octo [[linga|Shivalingae]] in saxo ad ripas fluminis [[Tungabhadra]] [[Hampi]] sculptae.]]
In [[Shaivismus|Shaivismo]], Shiva est deus omnium, habitus coli ab omnibus—''[[Deva (Hinduismus)|devis]]'' (deis) sicut [[Brahma]] et [[Indra]], ''[[asura|asuris]]'' (daemonibus) sicut [[Bana]] et [[Ravana]], hominibus sicut [[Adi Shankara]] et [[Nayanars]], et creaturis tam diversis quam ''[[jatayu]]'' (aquila), et ''[[vali]]'' (simia) non exceptis. Deitates, [[rishi]] (sapientes), et [[graha]]e ([[planeta]]), Shivam venerantes, [[Shivalinga]]s in variis locis instituerunt.
Sacrissima Shivae templa, appellata duodecim [[Jyotirlinga]], sunt [[Somnath]] apud [[Prabhas Patan]], [[Nageshwar Templum (Dwarka)|Nageshwar]] apud [[Dwarka]], [[Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga|Mahakaleshwar]] apud [[Ujjain]], Mallikārjuna apud [[Srisailam]], [[Bhimashankar Templum|Bhimashankar]], [[Omkareshwar]], [[Kedarnath Templum|Kedarnath]], [[Kashi Vishwanath Templum|Kashi Vishwanath]] apud [[Varanasi]], [[Trimbakeshwar]] prope [[Nasik]], [[Ramanathaswamy Templum, Rameswaram|Rameswaram]] apud [[Rameswaram]], [[Grishneshwar]] prope [[Ellora]], et [[Vaidyanath Templum (Deoghar)|Vaidyanath]] apud [[Deoghar]].
== Vide etiam ==
* [[Historia Shaivismi]]
* [[Shaivismus]]
* [[Shiva Puja]]
* [[Shiva Purana]]
* [[Varanasi]]
== Notae ==
== Bibliographia ==
[[ImagoFasciculus:Statue of lord shiva.jpg|thumb|275px|Statua Shivae in Via Delhi-Gurgaon]]
[[ImagoFasciculus:Arthanari.png|thumb|upright|200px|[[Aes|Aerea]] [[Domus Chola]]e statua [[saeculum 11|saeculi undecimi]] Shivam forma [[Ardhanarisvara]]e monstrat.]]
* Apte, Vaman Shivram. [[1965]]. ''The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary.'' Editio quarta. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0567-4.
* Arya, Ravi Prakash & K. L. Joshi. [[2001]]. ''Ṛgveda Saṃhitā: Sanskrit Text, English Translation.'' 4 codices. Parimal Sanskrit Series, 45; 2003 reprint: ISBN 81-7020-070-9. Delhi: Parimal Publications.
* Hopkins, E. Washburn. [[1915]], [[1969]]. ''Epic Mythology.'' [[Novum Eboracum (urbs)|Novi Eboraci]]: Biblo and Tannen.
* Jansen, Eva Rudy. [[1993]]. ''The Book of Hindu Imagery.'' Havelte, Holland: Binkey Kok Publications BV ISBN 90-74597-07-6.
* Keay, John. [[2000]]. ''India: A History.'' [[Novum Eboracum (urbs)|Novi Eboraci]]: Grove Press ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.
* Kramrisch, Stella. [[1981]]. ''The Presence of Śiva.'' Princeton: Princeton University Press ISBN 0-691-01930-4.
* Macdonell, Anthony. [[1996]]. ''A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. ''New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers ISBN 81-215-0715-4.
* Sharma, Ram Karan. [[1996]]. ''Śivasahasranāmāṣṭakam: Eight Collections of Hymns Containing One Thousand and Eight Names of Śiva.'' Delhi: Nag Publishers. ISBN 81-7081-350-6.
* Sivaramamurti, C. [[1976]]. ''Śatarudrīya: Vibhūti of Śiva's Iconography.'' Delhi: Abhinav Publications.
* Stutley, Margaret. [[1985]]. ''The Illustrated Dictionary of Hindu Iconography. '' First Indian Edition: Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 81-215-1087-2.
* Tattwananda, Swami. [[1984]]. ''Vaisnava Sects, Saiva Sects, Mother Worship.'' [[Calcutta]]e: Firma KLM Private Ltd.
* Tulsidas, Goswami. [[1985]]. ''Hanuman Chalisa.'' [[Chennai]] [[India]]e: Sri Ramakrishna Math. ISBN 81-7120-086-9.
* Zimmer, Heinrich. [[1946]]. ''Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization.'' Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01778-6.
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