Aperire sectionem principem

Philosophia hodierna est philosophia nostri temporis, praesente in historia philosophiae Occidentalis aevo, quae, saeculo undevicensimo finito, disciplina munus professionale facta est, et philosophia analytica et continentalis ortae sunt.

Locutio philosophia hodierna est terminus technicus in philosophia qui certum aevum in historia philosophiae Occidentalis attingit. Quae autem locutio saepe confusa est cum philosophia recente (aliud aevum in philosophia Occidentali attingente), philosophia postmoderna (iudicia philosophorum Europaeorum de philosophia hodierna attingente), et non technico locutionis usu (ullum opus philosophicum recens attingente).

Divisio inceptaRecensere

Hodierna philosophia continentalis in operibus Francisci Brentano, Edmundi Husserl, Adolphi Reinach, et Martini Heidegger et in phaenomenologia, ratione philosophica, orta est. Hic progressus eodem fere tempore fuit atque opere Gottlob Frege et Bertrandi Russell, quod novam rationem philosophicam in enodationis linguae per logicam recentem fundata coepit; ergo vocabulum philosophia analytica.[1]

Philosophia analytica auctoritate pollet in Britanniarum Regno, Canada, Australia, Scandinavia, Nederlandia, Germania, Austria, et quidem plurimo Europae; philosophia autem continentalis in Francia, Italia, Hispania, et regionibus Civitatum Foederatarum plerumque obtinet.

Nonnulli philosophi, inter quos Ricardus Rorty et Simon Glendinning, arguunt hanc divisionem inter continentalem et analyticam esse inimicum totius disciplinae. Alii, inter quos Ioannes Searle, dicunt philosophiam continentalem, praecipue philosophiam continentalem poststructuralisticam, oblitterandam esse, quia obscura et nebulosa videtur.

Philosophia analytica cum philosophia continentali communem traditionem philosophicam Occidentalem usque ad Immanuelem Kantium communicant. Postea, philosophi analytici et continentales inter se differunt de momento et gratia philosophorum sequentium in suis traditionibus propriis. Exempli gratia, Germanica idealismi schola, ex opere Kantii decenniis a 1780 ad 1799 orta, ad summum in opere Georgii Gulielmi Friderici Hegel venit, qui multis philosophis continentalibus magni aestimatur. Ex converso, philosophi analytici Hegel personam aliquantum minorem aestimant.

Philosophia analyticaRecensere

Gottlob Frege circa annum 1879.

Analytica in philosophia ratio usitate ex operibus Bertrandi Russell et G. E. Moore, philosophorum Anglicorum saeculo vicensimo ineunte deducitur, qui vicissim opus Gottlob Frege, philosophi et mathematici Germani, excoluerunt, formas Hegelianismi tum praevalentis aversantes,[2][3] et novum genus explicationis conceptualis in recenti logicae progressu conditae evolvens. Maximum huius rationis novae exemplum est "On Denoting" (1905), commentarius Russellianus nunc late habitus exemplar propositi analytici in philosophia.[4]

Philosophi hodierni qui sese analyticos appellant latissime diversa studia, sumptiones, et rationes, et saepe primas propositiones reicierunt quae motum analyticum ab anno 1900 ad 1960 definiebant, sed philosophia analytica, statu aequaevo, usitate definiri putatur a quodam stilo,[5] cuius proprietas est arta re accuratio et perfectio, cum "impolitis vel effrenatis rerum latarum disceptationibus" repugnantia.[6][7]

Nonnulli philosophi analytici saeculo vicensimo exeunte, inter quos Ricardus Rorty, poposcerunt traditionem philosophiae analyticae magnopere refici; potissimum, Rorty arguit philosophis analyticis accipiendum esse praecepta magni momenti ex opere philosophorum continentalium.[8] Nonnulli scriptores philosophici, inter quos Paulus M. Livingston[9] et Shaun Gallagher,[10] affirmaverunt communiter in ambabus traditionibus cognitiones aestimabiles esse, cum alii, inter quos Timothaeus Williamson, poposcerunt philosophos in eximiis philosophiae analyticae speciebus adeo diligentiore manere.

Philosophia continentalisRecensere

Historia philosophae continentalis coepi habetur saeculo vicensimo ineunte, quia eius fontes institutionales recte a phaenomenologia derivantur.[11] Qua pro causa, Edmundus Husserl saepe appellatus est conditor philosophiae continentalis. Cum philosophia ambae analytica et continentalis post Kantium omne philosophiae propositum tam diverse intuentur, philosophia continentalis sensu lato ullos philosophos vel motus postkantianos qui philosophia continentali referant saepe amplecti habetur, contra philosophiam analyticam.

Nexus interni

NotaeRecensere

  1. Dummett 1994; Prado 2003.
  2. Vide, exempli gratia, Mooreanum A Defence of Common Sense et Russellianam Doctrine of internal relations disceptationem.
  3. "Analytic philosophy opposed right from its beginning English neo-Hegelianism of Bradley's sort and similar ones. It did not only criticize the latter's denial of the existence of an external world (anyway an unjust criticism), but also the bombastic, obscure style of Hegel's writings" (Peter Jonkers, "Perspectives on twentieth century philosophy: A Reply to Tom Rockmore," PDF).
  4. Peter Ludlow, "Descriptions," in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (editio aestatis 2005), ed. Edward N. Zalta, hic in interrete.
  5. Vide, exempli gratia, Brian Leiter hic: "'Analytic' philosophy today names a style of doing philosophy, not a philosophical program or a set of substantive views. Analytic philosophers, crudely speaking, aim for argumentative clarity and precision; draw freely on the tools of logic; and often identify, professionally and intellectually, more closely with the sciences and mathematics, than with the humanities."
  6. Anglice: "imprecise or cavalier discussions of broad topics."
  7. "Analytic Philosophy," Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  8. Rorty 1979: Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature.
  9. Livingston 2012.
  10. "How the body shapes the mind.
  11. Maxima organizatio academica ad studium philosophiae continentalis promovendum dicata est Societas Phaenomenologiae et Philosophiae Exsistentialis.
  12. Hubben 1952.
  13. Anglice: "explicit conceptual manifestation of an existential attitude."
  14. Solomon 1987:238.
  15. Solomon 1974:1–2.
  16. Cooper 1999:8.

BibliographiaRecensere

Generalia
Philosophia analytica et continentalis
  • Chase, James, et Jack Reynolds. 2011. Analytic versus Continental: Arguments on the Methods and Value of Philosophy. Durham: Acumen.
  • Hubben, William. 1952. Four Prophets of Our Destiny.
  • Luchte, James. 2007. Martin Heidegger and Rudolf Carnap: Radical Phenomenology, Logical Positivism and the Roots of the Continental/Analytic Divide. Philosophy Today 5(3):241-260. Wordpress.com.
  • Levy, Neil. 2003. Analytic and Continental Philosophy: Explaining the Differences. Metaphilosophy 34(3).
  • Prado, C. G. 2003. A House Divided: Comparing Analytic and Continental Philosophy. Humanity Books.
Philosophia analytica
  • Cooper, D. E. 1999. Existentialism: A Reconstruction. Oxoniae: Basil Blackwell.
  • Dummett, Michael. 1996. Origins of Analytical Philosophy. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: Harvard University Press.
  • Floyd, Juliet. 2001. Future Pasts: The Analytic Tradition in Twentieth-Century Philosophy. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Glock, Hans-Johann. 2008. What is Analytic Philosophy? Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Martinich, A. P. 2001. Analytic Philosophy: An Anthology. Blackwell Philosophy Anthologies. Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Martinich, A. P. 2005. A Companion to Analytic Philosophy. Blackwell Companions to Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Soames, Scott. 2005. Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century, Volume 1: The Dawn of Analysis. Princeton University Press.
  • Soames, Scott. 2005. Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century, Volume 2: The Age of Meaning. Princeton University Press.
  • Solomon, Robert C. 1974. Existentialism. Novi Eboraci: McGraw-Hill.
  • Stroll, Avrum. 2001. Twentieth-Century Analytic Philosophy. Novi Eboraci: Columbia University Press.
  • Williamson, Timothy. 2008. The Philosophy of Philosophy. The Blackwell/Brown Lectures in Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
Philosophia continentalis
  • Critchley, Simon. 2001. Continental Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285359-7.
  • Cutrofello, Andrew. 2005. Continental Philosophy: A Contemporary Introduction. Routledge.
  • Glendinning, Simon. 2006. The Idea of Continental Philosophy. Edimburgi: Edinburgh University Press.

Nexus externiRecensere