Pastillum Hamburgense[1][2], Anglice Hamburger est cibus promptus Americanus popularis, quem multi adfirmant circa annum 1870 primum creavisse. Constat e pastillo panis cui ofella bubula isiciata assa immittitur. Varia embammata (sinapi, liquamen e lycopersicis sive embamma Magonicum), holera cruda (lactucae folium, lycopersicorum ceparumque frusta), etiam salgama de cucumeribus sive anguriis suffarcinari solent. Pastilla Hamburgensia cum patatis frictis et potione carbonica saepe proponuntur.

Cibus promptus Canadensis: Pastillum Hamburgense, holeribus solitis suffarcinatum, cum patatis frictis et potione carbonica apud Burger King Mississauga in urbe comedendum
Cibus promptus Civitatum Foederatarum: Bacon cheddar burger i.e. pastillum Hamburgense, frusto laridi frustoque casei Cheddarensis (sed suppositicii) suffarcinatum, annulis ceparum sectarum elixis impositis, Kansanopoli (?) apud Smashburger inlatum

Idem pastillum, si frustum casei in ofellam superimponitur, cheeseburger nominatur. Ipsa ofella Hamburger steak appellari solet.

Gastronomia Campensis in Nivata: pastillum autopyrum cui immittuntur isicium e carne bisontis Vyominensis, caseus Mozzarella, ficatum (anserinum aut anatinum?) sartagine tostum, embammate e tuberis Petrocoriensibus, appositis batatis dulcibus frictis (Wyoming buffalo patty, whole wheat bun, Mozzarella, pan seared foie gras, black Perigord truffle sauce with a side of sweet potato fries) in popina ab Huberto Keller directa inlatum

Pastilla farta Hamburgensi pristino similia in Civitatibus Foederatis necnon alibi recenter venditantur, exempli gratia pullina, porcina, gallopavonina. Veggie burger etiam proponitur ("pastillum oleraceum" vel "pastillum castimoniale"), ofella de phaseolo seu cicere ex aromatibus confecta immissa.

De pastillis Hamburgensibus in litteris Americanis nonnumquam legitur. Bis in mythistoriis Sinclair Lewis protagonistae apud ganeam[3] seu lunch-wagon ("carrum pransorium") comedentes monstrantur;[4] in mythistoria brevi Truman Capote In Cold Blood pastillum Hamburgense in ganea sumitur.[5] Persona J. Wellington Wimpy narrationis pictae nubeculatae Popeye the Sailor Man, ab Elzie Crisler Segar compositae, anno 1931 inceptae, amator pastillorum Hamburgensium pecuniis semper carens, rapidissime tam celeber fit ut nomen suum catenae popinarum Wimpy[en] daret, anno 1934 conditae.

Origo et primitiaeRecensere

Isicium, quod partem carnosam huius ferculi constituit, fortasse ex isiciis iam in Germania septentrionali confectis, Frikadelle appellatis, imitatum est. Iam annis 1870 a cauponibus magna parte per Hamburgum ad Civitates Foederatas immigrantibus talia isicia variis in urbibus in popinis Germanis inferebantur. Hamburg steak ("frustum bubulum Hamburgense") per analogiam nuncupabantur, quamquam non e frustis bubulis sed e carne concisa in ofellas refecta proveniebant, quia eodem tempore ofellae carnis bubulae concisae crudae ad invalidos nutriendos nomine Salisbury steak conficiebantur; botuli appellationibus urbium Europaearum Frankfurter et Wiener iam nominati erant. Anno 1872, primus omnium nobis cognitorum, poëta Robert Bluebeard Kydd de his deliciis cecinit:

And sour kraut I esteem a relish
My wine and Hamburg steak to embellish

("salgama e brassica gustum aestimo ad vinum isiciumque Hamburgense").[6] Anno 1873 Novi Eboraci in urbe,[7] anno 1876 in popina Germana Expositionis Centennialis Philadelphiae Hamburger steaks crebrissime venditata sunt.[8]

Qui autem primus isicium Hamburgense nuper frictum inter frusta panis immiserit, ut verum cibum viarium constituerit, haud scimus. Hoc ante annum 1893 certe accidit, quo anno in urbe Reno Nivatae Hamburger steak sandwiches semper prompta venisse asseverantur.[9] Post tres annos Chicagine cibus promptus verbis non ambiguis describitur:

A distinguished favourite, only five cents, is Hamburger steak sandwich, the meat for which is kept ready in small patties and cooked while you wait on a gasoline range ("multo tibi gratissimus, quinque centesimis nec pluribus panis fartus Hamburgensis oblatus est, qui promptus in forma isiciorum tenetur atque in craticula gase succensa dum opperiris coquitur").[10]

Venditores loco frustorum panis mox pastillum rotundum (Anglice bun) ad isicium Hamburgense involvendum adhibere solebant, quod pistores assidue anno 1902 et fortasse iam antea producebant.[11]

Hae copadiae viariae, ab initio verbis pluribus denominatae, iam ab anno 1898 singulo vocabulo Hamburger ("[pastillum] Hamburgense") nuncupari coeperunt, sicut in diario urbis S. Ludovici Missuriae de "gustu populari deliciarum pullinarum bubularum aliarumque apud thermopolia pransoria" legitur, the public taste for fried chicken, hamburgers and other lunch stand delicacies.[12] Quibus pransoriis tam viariis quam forensibus hamburger stands ("thermopolia Hamburgensia") communiter appellatis,[13] sive mox lunch wagons ("carri pransorii"),[4] satis liquet pastillum Hamburgense inter cibos Civitatum Foederatarum gratissimos iam illo aevo enumerandum esse.

Imperium HamburgenseRecensere

Saeculo 20 in Civitatibus Foederatis pastilla Hamburgensia non cibum viarium tantum constituebant sed etiam prandium operariis scholariisque oblatum, victuale domo paratum. Mox ganeae vel popinae, pastilla Hamburgensia venditantes, loco tabernularum viariarum florere coeperunt. Singulae ganeae crebriter in omnibus fere urbibus conditae sunt, quarum satis multae etiam hodie manent. Sed Gualterus Anderson, qui ab anno 1916 Wichita in urbe tabernulas viarias ponebat, et Waldo Ingram mercator eiusdem urbis, ab anno 1921 catenam popinarum mediis urbibus Americanis aedificare inceperunt sub nomine mercatorio White Castle ut pastilla Hamburgensia consedentibus inferrent. Post decem annos hi ambo centum triginta et unam popinas possidebant.[14]

Alii alias catenas "Hamburgenses" creaverunt, Eduardus Vale Gold a Bloomingtonia Indianae ab anno 1934 sub nomine Wimpy[en], Ioannes Saxe a Milvauchia anno 1936 incipiens sub nomine White Tower, Robertus Wian eodem anno in urbe Glendale Californiae, nomine Big Boy[en] mox utens, Thomas Koulax anno 1946 Angelopoli nomine Tommy's[en], Henricus et Esther Snyder anno 1948 ad Baldwin Park eiusdem civitatis sub nomine In-N-Out Burger, Harmon Dobson et Paulus Burton anno 1950 in urbe Corporis Christi Texiae nomine Whataburger, Robertus Peterson anno 1951 Didacopoli nomine Jack in the Box, Keith Cramer et Matthaeus Burns anno 1953 Jacksonville in urbe Floridae qui denuo nomine Burger King usi erunt. Harum catenarum hodie usque florent White Castle, Wimpy, Big Boy, Tommy's, In-N-Out, Whataburger, Jack in the Box, Burger King.[15] Interdum Ricardus et Mauritius McDonald, qui iam anno 1940 Bernardinopoli popinam "Hamburgensem" nomine McDonald Brothers Burger Bar condiderant, systema novum cibi prompti sibi evolvebant, quod ab anno 1952 in catenam McDonald's expandere coepit,[16] hodie per totum fere mundum frequentatissimam.

Pastillum Hamburgense apud Americanos plurimis ab annis 1890 desideratum, apud Canadenses saeculo XX ineunte cognitum, in alias regiones orbis terrarum partim ad usum militum Civitatum Foederatarum sed maiore parte a societatibus commercialibus ad delectationem civium introducebatur. Wimpy Angliam ab 1953 et Africam Australem ab 1967, Burger King Australiam ab 1971 (sub nomine speciali Hungry Jack's), McDonald's Iaponiam Brasiliamque et Germaniam ab 1971, Franciam ab 1972, Thailandiam ab 1985, Russiam et Sericam ab 1990 invaserunt. Inter novas catenas enumerari possunt Bob's ab 1951 in Brasilia incepta, Little Chef ab 1958 in Anglia, MOS Burger et Lotteria ab 1972 in Iaponia, Jollibee ab 1975 in insulis Philippinis, Ramly Burger in Malaesia ab 1979 florentes, Nirula's in India ab annis 1950: hic autem, carnibus bovinis non venditatis, isicia pullina et ex holeribus confecta in pastillis immitti solent.[17]

NotaeRecensere

  1. Haec vox invenitur apud Roberti Maier Visuelles Wörterbuch Latein-Deutsch, Dorling Kindersley Verlag GmbH, Monaci 2010, ISBN 978-3-8310-9091-4, p. 155
  2. Cf. "isicium Hamburgense" (Ebbe Vilborg, Norstedts svensk-latinska ordbok, editio secunda, 2009), quod nomen ad ofellam referre debet.
  3. [Milt] ducked into the door of the Old Home Poolroom and Restaurant. [He] ranged up to the short lunch counter, in front of the pool table where two brick-necked farm youngsters were furiously slamming balls and attacking cigarettes. Loose-jointedly Milt climbed a loose-jointed high stool and to the proprietor, Bill McGolwey, his best friend, he yawned, "You might poison me with a hamburger and a slab of apple, Mac": Sinclair Lewis, Free Air (1919)
  4. 4.0 4.1 He wandered to an all-night lunch-wagon, where he gloomily drank coffee. Beside him, seated at the long shelf which served as table, beneath the noble red-glass window with a portrait of George Washington, was a policeman who ... gnawed a Hamburger sandwich ... With his spoon held inside the cup by a brawny thumb, the policeman gulped his coffee and proclaimed, while the greasy friendly cook of the lunch-wagon nodded in agreement ... "He's one awful brainy man": Sinclair Lewis, Arrowsmith (1925)
  5. "Perry, baby," Dick said, "you don't want that burger. I'll take it." Perry shoved the plate across the table: Truman Capote, In Cold Blood (1966) p. 72
  6. Robert Bluebeard Kydd, The Old Trunk and New Carpet-Bag (1872), cf. #Popik (2005)
  7. "Hamburg steak ... simply a beefsteak redeemed from its original toughness by being mashed into mincemeat": New York Times (19 Ianuarii 1873), cf. #Popik (2005)
  8. New York Tribune (1876) fide #Smith (2008) p. 17
  9. Reno Evening Gazette (1893) fide #Smith (2008) p. 20
  10. Chicago Daily Tribune (5 Iulii 1896), cf. #Smith (2008) p. 20 et #Popik (2005)
  11. "One Hamburger sandwich man disposed of 400 buns to hungry pedestrians Thursday": Davenport Republican [Iova] (28 Iunii 1902); similiter Decatur Daily Review [Illinoesia] (16 Octobris 1902); cf. #Popik (2005)
  12. St. Louis Republic (19 Augusti 1898), cf. #Popik (2005)
  13. "These attractions will include everything from the hamburger stand to the merry-go-round and the Japanese swing": Decatur Herald [Illinoesia] (28 June 1904)
  14. #Smith (2008) pp. 25-29; #Hogan (1997)
  15. #Smith (2008) pp. 29-41; de popinis In-N-Out vide et #Perman (2009)
  16. #Smith (2008) pp. 42-63; #Boas et Chain (1977); Kincheloe (2002)
  17. #Smith (2008) pp. 87-109

BibliographiaRecensere

Bibliographica
  • Eugene L. Huddleston, "A Burger Bibliography" in Journal of American Culture vol. 1 (1978) pp. 466-471
Historica
  • Max Boas, Steve Chain, Big Mac: the unauthorized story of Mcdonald's. Novi Eboraci, 1977
  • John T. Edge, Hamburgers and Fries: An American Story. Novi Eboraci: Putnam, 2005. ISBN 0-399-15274-1
  • Gyula Décasy, Hamburger for America and the World: a handbook of the transworld hamburger culture. Blooomington, 1984
  • John T. Edge, Hamburgers and Fries: an American story. Novi Eboraci, 2005
  • David Graulich, The Hamburger Companion: a connoisseur's guide to the food we love. Novi Eboraci, 1999
  • David Gerard Hogan, Selling 'Em by the Sack: White Castle and the creation of American food. Novi Eboraci, 1997
  • Joe L. Kincheloe, The Sign of the Burger: McDonald's and the culture of power. Philadelphia, 2002
  • Ronald L. McDonald, The Complete Hamburger: The History of America's Favorite Sandwich. Londinii: Citadel, 1997. ISBN 1-55972-407-2
  • George Motz, Hamburger America: A State-by-State Guide to 150 Great Burger Joints. 2a ed. Running Press, 2011 (prima ed. 2008)
  • Josh Ozersky, Hamburgers: a cultural history. Novo Portu: Yale University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-300-11758-5 (Paginae selectae apud Google Books)
  • Stacy Perman, In-N-Out Burger: A Behind-the-Counter Look at the Fast-Food Chain That Breaks All the Rules. Novi Eboraci: Harper Collins, 2009
  • Chase Purdy, Billion Dollar Burger: Inside Big Tech's Race for the Future of Food. Penguin, 2020. ISBN 2019056851
  • Elisabeth Rozin, The Primal Cheeseburger: A Generous Helping of Food History Served On a Bun. Novi Eboraci: Penguin, 1994. ISBN 0-14-017843-0
  • Andrew F. Smith, "Hamburger" in Solomon H. Katz, ed., Encyclopedia of Food and Culture (Novi Eboraci: Scribner, 2003) vol. 2 pp. 169-173
  • Andrew F. Smith, Hamburger: A Global History. Londinii: Reaktion Books, 2008. ISBN 1-86189-390-6 (fons principalis historiae et bibliographiae nostrae)
  • Jeffrey Tennyson, Hamburger Heaven: the illustrated history of the hamburger. Novi Eboraci, 1993
Praecepta culinaria
  • 1993 : Marcel Desaulniers, Burger Meisters: America's best chefs give their recipes for America's best burgers plus the fixin's. Novi Eboraci, 1993
  • 1995 : Marcel Desaulniers, Burgers: classic American hamburgers and their accompaniments. Londinii, 1995
  • 2004 : Rebecca Bent, Tom Steele, Burgers: 50 recipes celebrating an American classic. Clarkson Potter, 2004
  • 2004 : Emily Bloom, Burgers Every Way: 100 recipes using beef, chicken, turkey, lamb, fish and vegetables. Novi Eboraci, 2004
  • 2013 : Andy Husbands, Chris Hart, Andrea Pyenson, Wicked Good Burgers: fearless recipes and uncompromising techniques for the ultimate patty. Fair Winds Press. ISBN 1592335586
  • 2015 : Jens Fischer, The Art of the Burger : More Than 50 Recipes to Elevate America’s Favorite Meal to Perfection. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 1632205084
  • 2016 : George Motz, The Great American Burger Book: How to Make Authentic Regional Hamburgers at Home. Novi Eboraci: Harry N. Abrams, 2016
  • 2018 : Chris Kronner, Paolo Lucchesi, A Burger to Believe In: Recipes and Fundamentals. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0399579265

Nexus interni

Nexus externiRecensere