Aperire sectionem principem

Expressionismus in musica est notio probabiliter primum ad musicam adhibita anno 1918, praecipue ad Schoenberg,[1] qui, sicut Basilius Kandinsky pictor (1866–1944), "traditionalia pulchritudinis genera"[2] evitavit ad affectus validos in eius musica significandos.[3] Theodorus Adorno, philosophus, sociologus, studiosus musicae, et compositor Germanicus, affirmat motum expressionisticum in musica petere "amovere omnes musicae traditionalis proprietates vulgatas, omnia per formulas rigisa."[4] Quae putat "Ululatus exemplar litterarium similis."[5] Adorno habet musicam expressionisticam petere "veracitatem proprii affectus sine erroribus, vestitibus alienis, vel euphemismis."[6] Quam Adorno etiam describit animi agitationem de non conscientia, dicens, "depictio timoris in media parte musicae expressionisticae iacet,[7] dissonantia praevalente, ut "concors affirmansque artis proprietas expellatur."[8][9]

Maiores personaeRecensere

Tres personae expressionismi musici maximi momenti fuerunt Arnoldus Schoenberg (1874–1951) et eius discipuli, Antonius Webern (1883–1945) et Albanus Berg (1885–1935), una Schola Vindobonensis Secunda appellata. Alii compositores cum expressionismo consociati fuerunt Ernestus Krenek (1900–1991) (Symphonia Secunda, 1922), Paulus Hindemith (1895–1963) (Die junge Magd, Op. 23b, 1922, sex poemata Georgii Trakl tractans), Inguarus Stravinsky (1882–1971) (Tres Lyrica Iaponiensia, 1913), et Alexander Skrjabin (1872–1915) (ultimae sonatae pro clavili)[10] Alius expressionista magni momenti fuit Adalbertus Bartók (1881–1945) in operibus primis, secundo decennio saeculi vicensimi compositis, sicut Castellum Barbae Caeruleae (1911),[11] Princeps Ligneus (1917),[12] et Mandarinicus Mirus (1919).[13] Inter activos compositores Americanos quibus erat misericors "impulsus talis expressionis amplificatae" sub tempore compositionum libere atonalium et expressionisticarum Schoenbergianarum (ab 1908 ad 1921) fuerunt Carolus Ruggles, Dane Rudhyar, et "aliqua ex parte," Carolus Ives, cuius carmen "Walt Whitman" est exemplum clarissimum.[14] Graves expressionismi praecursores fuerunt Ricardus Wagner (1813–1883), Gustavus Mahler (1860–1911), et Ricardus Strauss (1864–1949).[15] Compositores recentiores, sicut Petrus Maxwell Davies (n. 1934), "aliquando visi sunt expressionismum Schoenbergianum, Berg, et Webern perpetuare visi sunt,"[16][17] et proprietas distinctior Heinz Holliger (n. 1939) "est vehementer occupata evocatio . . . expressionismi necessario lyrici in Schoenberg, Berg, et praecipue Webern inventi."[18][19] Etiam multi pictores expressionistae fuerunt, ut e.g. Antonius Faistauer Salisburgensis.

NotaeRecensere

  1. Anglice: "was probably first applied to music in 1918, especially to Schoenberg."
  2. Anglice: "traditional forms of beauty."
  3. Sadie 1991:244.
  4. Anglice: "eliminate all of traditional music's conventional elements, everything formulaically rigid."
  5. Anglice: "to the literary ideal of the 'scream.'"
  6. Anglice: "the truthfulness of subjective feeling without illusions, disguises or euphemisms."
  7. Anglice: "the depiction of fear lies at the centre."
  8. Anglice: "harmonious, affirmative element of art is banished."
  9. Adorno 2009:275–276.
  10. Adorno 2009: 275.
  11. Gagné 2011: 92.
  12. Clements 2007.
  13. Bayley 2001: 152.
  14. Carter 1965:9.
  15. Anon. 2000; Mitchell 2005:334.
  16. Anglice: "have sometimes been seen as perpetuating the Expressionism of Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern."
  17. Griffiths 2002.
  18. Anglice: "is an intensely engaged evocation of . . . the essentially lyric expressionism found in Schoenberg, Berg and, especially, Webern."
  19. Whittall 1999: 38.

Nexus interni

FontesRecensere

  • Adorno, Theodore. 2009. Night Music: Essays on Music 1928–1962, ed. Rolf Tiedemann, conv. ieland Hoban. Londinii, Novi Eboraci, Calcuttae: Seagull Books. ISBN 978-1-906497-21-7.
  • Anon. 2000. Expressionism. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia.
  • Bayley, Amanda, ed. 2001. The Cambridge Companion to Bartók. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Biersdorfer, J. D. 2009. "Setting the Stage with Shadows". New York Times, 22 Maii.
  • Carpenter, Alexander. 2010. Schoenberg's Vienna, Freud's Vienna: Re-Examining the Connections between the Monodrama Erwartung and the Early History of Psychoanalysis. Musical Quarterly 93(1):144-181.
  • Carter, Elliott. 1965. Expressionism and American Music. Perspectives of New Music 4(1):1–13.
  • Clements, Andrew. 2007. Classical Preview: The Wooden Prince. The Guardian, 5 Maii.
  • Fanning, David. 2001. Expressionism. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. 2a, ed. Stanley Sadie et John Tyrrell. Londinii: Macmillan Publishers.
  • Gagné, Nicole V. 2011. Historical Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Classical Music. Plimutae Angliae: Scarecrow Press.
  • Gittleman, Sol. 1968. Frank Wedekind. Twayne's World Authors Series, TWAS 55. Novi Eboraci: Twayne. ISBN 978-0-8044-2233-8.
  • Griffiths, Paul. 2002. Expressionism. The Oxford Companion to Music, ed,y Alison Latham. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press.
  • Holloway, Robin. 1979. The Complete Lulu. Tempo, no. 129 (Iunio), 36–39.
  • Jarman, Douglas. 1991. Alban Berg: Lulu. Cantabrigiae et Novi Eboraci: Cambridge University Press.
  • Mitchell, Donald. 2005. Gustav Mahler: The Wunderhorn Years: Chronicles and Commentaries. Rochester Novi Eboraci: Boydell Press.
  • Reich, Willi. 2013. Alban Berg. Encyclopædia Britannica. Editio interretialis. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.
  • Sadie, Stanley, ed. 1991. The Norton Grove Concise Encyclopedia of Music. Novi Eboraci: W. W. Norton.
  • Schoenberg, Arnold. 1975. Style and Idea: Selected Writings of Arnold Schoenberg, ed. Leonard Stein, conv. Leo Black. London: Faber and Faber.
  • Whittall, Arnold. 1999. Holliger at 60: Keeping the Faith. The Musical Times 140(1867):38–48.

Bibliographia additaRecensere

  • Albright, Daniel. 2004. Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Sources. Sicagi: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-01267-0.
  • Behr, Shulamith, David Fanning, and Douglas Jarman. 1993. Expressionism Reassessed. Manchester [UK] and New York: Manchester University Press ISBN 0-7190-3843-X, ISBN 0-7190-3844-8.
  • Celestini, Federico. 2009. Der Schrei und die Musik: Mahlers Klänge in Weberns Orchesterstück op. 6/2. In Webern21, ed. Dominik Schweiger et Nikolaus Urbanek, 55–71. Wiener Veröffentlichungen zur Musikgeschichte, 8. Vindobonae: Böhlau. ISBN 978-3-205-77165-4.
  • Crawford, John C., et Dorothy L Crawford. 1993. Expressionism in Twentieth-Century Music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-31473-9.
  • Fanning, David. Expressionism. Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy.
  • Franklin, Peter. 1993. "Wilde Musik": Composers, Critics and Expressionism. In Expressionism Reassessed, ed. Shulamith Behr, David Fanning, et Douglas Jarman, 112–120. Mancuniae: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-3844-0.
  • Hailey, Christopher. 1993. Musical Expressionism: The Search for Autonomy. In Expressionism Reassessed, ed. Shulamith Behr, David Fanning, et Douglas Jarman, 103–111. Mancuniae: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-3844-0.
  • Harrison, Daniel. 2004. Max Reger Introduces Atonal Expressionism. The Musical Quarterly 87(4):660–680.
  • Hinton, Stephen. 1993. Defining Musical Expressionism: Schoenberg and Others. In Expressionism Reassessed, ed. Shulamith Behr, David Fanning, et Douglas Jarman, 121–129. Mancuniae: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-3844-0.
  • Lessem, Alan. 1974. Schönberg and the Crisis of Expressionism. Music and Letters 55(4):429–436.
  • Neighbour, Oliver W. Glückliche Hand, die Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy.
  • Neighbour, Oliver W. Erwartung. Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy.
  • Kandinsky, Wassily. 1914. The Art of Spiritual Harmony, conv. M. T. H. Sadler. Londinii: Constable and Company Limited. Reimpressio: Concerning the Spiritual in Art. Novi Eboraci: Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 0-486-23411-8. Editio retractata: Concerning the Spiritual in Art, conv. Michael Sadleir, cum addita conversione a Francis Golffing, Michael Harrison, et Ferdinand Ostertag. The Documents of Modern Art, 5. Novi Eboraci: George Wittenborn, Inc., 1947. Nova translatio: On the Spiritual in Art: First Complete English Translation with Four Full Colour Page Reproductions, Woodcuts and Half Tones, conv. Hilla Rebay. Novi Eboraci: Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 1946.
  • Poirier, Alain. 1995. L'Expressionnisme et la musique. Lutetiae: Fayard. ISBN 2-213-59243-8.
  • Samson, Jim. 1977. Music in Transition. Londinii: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd. ISBN 0-460-04245-9.

Nexus externiRecensere

  Vicicitatio habet citationes quae ad Expressionismus (musica) spectant.