Cocktail (verbum Anglicum, scilicet "[equus] hybrida") est potio fortis mixta, quorum antiquissimae hoc nomen habentes, saeculo XIX ineunte oblatae, ex aqua vitae, aqua, saccharo, elixire amaro[en] confectae sunt. Genera plura huius temeti post annum fere 1860 hodie usque inventa sunt, nominibus specialibus, variis proprietatibus.

Gastronomia Californiensis: Vesper modo canonico ex iuniperato, vodca, vino cinchonato composita, taenia corticis limonii ornata, apud cauponam oppidi Half Moon Bay oblata

Nomen et origoRecensere

Ex antiquissima citatione verbi cock-tail sensu potionis, Londinii anno 1803 divulgata, fere nihil discimus quia pars est enumerationis potionum fictae sed rebus politicis, privatis, sexualibus fartae: "Dominus Pitt, duo cyathi parvi unguenti Veneris, 1s.; ... unus perfecti amoris 7d.; ... cock-tail i.q. excitatorium ¾d.".[1] E secunda citatione, Amherstii in Nova Hantonia anno insequenti, haud plura: est enim ephemeris ficta Aristippi cuiusdam provincialis: "Cyathum cocktail bibimus, capite sanativissimum: abambulavimus omnes ad puellas visitandas ... Apud Colonellum venientes puellas vivaces amabilesque reperimus: cyathum vini bibimus ... Apud medicum venimus: ibi Burnham reperimus qui sapiens videbatur: cyathum iterum cocktail bibimus."[2] Citatio tertia, Hudson in urbe Novi Eboraci anno 1806 divulgata, enumerationem potionum profert: "720 grogs rhomii; 17 grogs spiritus vini; 32 slings iuniperati; 411 cyathi elixirum amarorum; 25 cyathi cock-tail."[3] Ibi contextus potionum fortium sed aliud nihil nobis praebitum esset, nisi quod lector quidam, talium allusionum fastidiosus, definitionem verbi incogniti postulavit. Cui editor sic non sine subrisu politico respondit:

Cock tail ... is a stimulating liquor, composed of spirits of any kind, sugar, water, and bitters — it is vulgarly called bittered sling, and is supposed to be an excellent electioneering potion, inasmuch as it renders the heart stout and bold, at the same time that it fuddles the head.

("Cock tail est temetum stimulans e spiritu alicuius generis, saccharo, aqua, elixire amaro mixtum et vulgariter bittered sling nuncupatum. Quae potio optime candidatis convenit, corde potoris forti audacique reddito, capite itidem ebriato.")[4] Haec definitio strictissime ad temetum Old Fashioned convenit sed ad plurimas potiones quae cocktail appellantur satis correspondet.

 
Whisky sour e vischio, suco limoniorum, saccharo, glacie inlatum, frusto aurantii cerasoque maraschino condito ornata

Citationibus 1798 et 1803 non iam repertis, definitione autem 1806 recensa, philologus H. L. Mencken cocktail ab Americanis primam inventam fuisse censuit. Quae res in dubio manet: cocktail enim annis 1800 tam in Anglia quam in Civitatis Foederatis primum relata, tam illic quam hic annis 1860 diffusa est. Londinii anno 1869 William Terrington "composita" definivit "saepissime adhibita a mane surgentibus ad animum intimum roborandum, etiam ab eis qui consolationes calidasque validasque requirere solent".[5] Sed illis annis limites definitionis cocktail rapidissime extendebantur: in libro praeceptuum a Jerry Thomas anno 1862 divulgato cocktail parvam potionum categoriam constituit, Crusta, punch, sour, sling[en], cobbler, flip exclusis; in editione 1887 eiusdem operis verbum cocktail maiorem partem harum potionum comprehendi habetur.[6]

Historia socialisRecensere

 
Margaritae e tequila, elixire Cointreau, iure lumiarum inlatae, labris cyathorum sale illitis

Recte H. L. Mencken (subridens et ille) disseminationem potionum huius generis a plurimis gentibus recognitam esse tamquam beneficium omnium maximum, quod gens humana, Americanarum morum gratia, ad salvationem suam accepissent:

The cock-tail, to multitudes of foreigners, seems to be the greatest of all contributions of the American way of life to the salvation of humanity.[7]

Talia beneficia seipsum elaboravisse et auxisse nuntiavit, undecim potiones se primum invenisse quarum novem sui honore nominatas: olim cum amico quantitatem maximam potionum quae e materie bibulica optimarum cauponarum confici possent a mathematico calculari mandavisse, seipsosque non minus quam 273 confecisse et gustavisse, quorum aliqua peiora, aliqua meliora sed omnia bona reportavissent.[8]

 
Temeta tres in caupona proposita: rhomium Renegade simplex, cocktail Manhattan, cocktail Old Fashioned

Novum genus comissationum, nomine cocktail party anno 1917, in urbe S. Ludovici in eadem domo ubi hodie archiepiscopi S. Ludovici habitantur, inceptum esse constat, sicut in paginis diarii St. Paul Pioneer Press legi potest: hanc novissimam conviviorum manifestationem mulierem Iulii S. Walsh primam invenisse, hospitibus quinquaginta convocatis horamque singulam inter meridiem prandiumque morantibus: potiones Bronx, Clover leaf, Highball, Gin fizz, Mint julep, Sazerac, Martini, Manhattan appetenter consumptas.[9] De prima huius generis comissatione in Anglia habita certiores facimur ab Alexandro Waugh mythistorico, qui se anno 1924 rem proposuisse rettulit: pictorem Ricardum Nevinson[en] mulieremque hospites triginta convocavisse; duabus hydriis potiones praeberi, unam ex iuniperato aliquo modo factam, alteram e rhomio Iamaicano sucoque lumiarum Rose's et elixire amaro Angostura glacieque fortissime confectam; paropsides propositas esse cream crackers magnumque caseum Cheddarensem, quo gustus rhomii optime promotus esset: duos, nec plures, convivas adfuisse, quibus necesse erat cyathos generosius implere.[10]

Index notabiliorum cocktail generumRecensere

NotaeRecensere

  1. Mr. Pitt, two petit vers of “L’huile de Venus” 0 1 0; ... one of “perfeit amour” 0 0 7; ... “cock-tail” (vulgarly called ginger) 0 0 0¾: Morning Post and Gazetteer (20 Martii 1798)
  2. Drank a glass of cocktail — excellent for the head; all sauntered away to see the girls ... Went to the Col[onel]’s, found the girls very lively and sociable — drank a glass of wine ... Call’d at the Doct[or]’s, found Burnham — he looked very wise — drank another glass of cocktail.: Farmer's Cabinet (28 Aprilis 1803)
  3. 720 rum grogs; 17 brandy [grogs]; 32 gin-slings; 411 glasses bitters; 25 glasses cock-tail: The Balance and Columbian Repository (6 Maii 1806)
  4. The Balance and Columbian Repository (13 Maii 1806)
  5. Cocktails are compounds very much used by "early birds" to fortify the inner man, and by those who like their consolations hot and strong: #Terrington (1869) p. 180
  6. #Thomas (1862); #Thomas (1887)
  7. #Mencken (1945) p. 256
  8. I have myself invented eleven, and had nine named after me ... employed a mathematician to figure out how many could be fashioned of the materia bibulica ordinarily available in a first-rate bar ... the number was 17,864,391,788. We tried 273 at random, and found them all good, though some, of course, were better than others. #Mencken (1945) p. 256
  9. Positively the newest stunt in society is the giving of "cocktail parties" ... Mrs. Julius S. Walsh, Jr., a leader in society activities ... responsible for the innovation ... interregnum preceding 1 o'clock dinner [etc.]: St. Paul Pioneer Press (Maio 1917) fide #Felten (2007)
  10. At each end of the table was a large earthenware jug. "One’s rum. The other's gin. Which'll you have?" they asked. I opted for rum. Jamaican rum had been blended with Rose's lime juice and sharpened with Angostura. Large nuggets of ice kept the mixture cool. It was very potent ... In front ... were two dishes of cream crackers and a large cheddar cheese. I cut myself a slice ... The cheddar brought out the flavor of the rum ... "It looks," said Richard, "as though you’ll have more than your ration of liquor to consume": #Waugh (1974)

BibliographiaRecensere

Historica
Praecepta
  • 1862 : Jerry Thomas, The bon vivant's companion, or How to mix drinks (Novi Eboraci: Dick & Fitzgerald) pp. 49-53
  • 1869 : William Terrington, Cooling cups and dainty drinks (Londinii: Routledge pp. 190-191 apud Internet Archive
  • 1887 : Jerry Thomas, The bar-tender's guide, or How to mix all kinds of plain and fancy drinks. Nova ed. Novi Eboraci: Dick & Fitzgerald Textus apud Internet Archive
  • 1895 : George J. Kappeler, Modern American drinks; how to mix and serve all kinds of cups and drinks (Novi Eboraci: Merriam) Textus apud Internet Archive
  • 1930 : Harry Craddock, The Savoy Cocktail Book. 1930 De hoc libro Florilegium
  • 1937 : William J. Tarling, Cafe Royal Cocktail Book. Londinii: Pall Mall
  • post 1937 : [William J. Tarling], Approved Cocktails: United Kingdom Bartenders Guild. Londinii: Pall Mall Textus
  • 1939 : Stanley Clisby Arthur, Famous New Orleans Drinks and How to Mix 'Em. Novae Aureliae: Harmanson, 1939 Textus
  • 1948 : Hilario Alonso Sánchez, El Arte del Cantinero (Havanae, 1948) p. 340 ff.
  • 1948 : David A. Embury, The Fine Art of Mixing Drinks. Novi Eboraci: Doubleday
  • 2020 : Dale DeGroff, The New Craft of the Cocktail. Novi Eboraci: Penguin Random House

Nexus externiRecensere